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Spanish Verbs




When looking at the verbs that follow, remember that Spanish verbs end in ar, er, or ir. Accept that fact and then, in your mind, remove the Spanish verb-ending. You will find that the Spanish verb bears a close similarity to one of the English equivalents that appear on its right. Oh! By the way! Spanish generally don't use double consonants, such as bb, cc, rr, ff, gg, nn, etc. (An ll is the noticeable exception.) If you remember this, it will be easier for you to see the similarity between Spanish and English words.

For example, remove the ar from abortar and what do you have? To miscarry or have a miscarriage. Isn't that the same as to abort?

The same is true for the Spanish verb, abandonar and absolver. Remove their endings and you are looking at to abandon and to absolve.

Included in the list, however, are a few verbs that differ from English by more than their ar, ir, or er endings. For example, included in the list are abalanzar (to balance), acelerar (to accelerate), abreviar (to abbreviate), and agitar (to agitate).

Here they are. The Spanish is on the left; the English on the right.

Abalanzar to balance

Abandonar to abandon, desert

Abolir to abolish

Abominar to abominate, abhor, detest

Abortar to miscarry, have a miscarriage, to give birth prematurely, to fail (Similar to abort)

Abreviar to abbreviate, shorten, condense

Abrogar to abrogate, repeal, annul

Absolver to absolve, free from guilt, to pardon, acquit

Absorber to absorb

Abstenerse to abstain, refrain

Abusar to abuse, mistreat, misuse

Acelerar to accelerate, speed up; to quicken; to hurry, hasten

Acentuar to accentuate, emphasize, to accent

Aceptar to accept, to approve, to admit

Aclamar to acclaim, cheer, hail, applaud

Acomodar to arrange, adjust, to accommodate, lodge, to place

Acompañar to accompany, to escort

Acreditar to credit, bring fame or credit to

Activar to activate, make active, to speed up, hasten

Acumular to accumulate, gather, pile up

Acusar to accuse, denounce

Adherir to adhere, to stick

Adjudicar to adjudge, award, assign (Isn't this similar to adjudicate?)

Admirar to admire

Admitir to admit; let in; to accept; to allow, permit

Adoptar to adopt; accept

Adorar to adore, worship

Adornar to adorn, decorate

Adquirir to acquire, gain, win, obtain (Omit the d and you see the similarity.)

Adulterar to adulterate, corrupt, make impure

Advertir to notice; to warn; to advertise

Afectar to affect, move, to pretend to have or feel

Afirmar to affirm, assert; to make firm

Agenciar to negotiate; to procure by negotiation; to promote (Similar to agency)

Agitar to agitate, excite; to stir, to wave, to shake

Aglomerar to mass together; to cluster (Similar to agglomerate?)

Agraciar to grace, to adorn

Agrandar to enlarge, to aggrandize, make greater

Agravar to aggravate, make worse

Aguar to dilute with water, to water (Remember aqua)

Ahumar to smoke; to fume (Similar to fumar in French)

Ajustar to adjust; to fit tight, to regulate

Alarmar to alarm

Alegar to allege, assert

Alegrar to cheer up, gladden; to brighten

Aliar to ally; to unite

Alterar to alter, to change; to disturb

Alternar to alternate; to take turns

Amalgamar to amalgamate, combine, mix, blend

Amoldar to mold; to shape; to adjust; to adapt

Amortizar to pay on account; to liquidate; to pay; to provide a sinking fund (Similar to amortize)

Anexar to annex

Animar to animate, give life to

Anticipar to anticipate

Anular to annul, void, cancel, abolish

Anunciar to announce; to advertise

Aparentar to appear, seem

Apartar to set apart; to separate

Apasionar to arouse passion; to fill with passion; - se to become impassioned

Apelar to appeal

Apilar to pick up, stack, heap

Aplacar to appease, pacify, soothe (Similar to placate)

Aplanar to level; to flatten (similar to plane)

Aplaudir to applaud, clap

Aplicar to apply; to put on

Apreciar to appreciate, value, esteem

Aprehender to apprehend, seize, arrest

Aprisionar to imprison

Aprobar to approve

Apropriar to fit; to adapt, -se to take possession (of); to confiscate (Similar to appropriate)

Aproximar to place or bring near, to approximate

Apurar to purify; verify; finish; to worry or annoy

Aquietar to quiet, calm, to hush

Arbitrar to arbitrate, to umpire

Armar to arm

Armonizar to harmonize

Argüir to argue, deduce, infer

Arreglar to arrange, put in order; to regulate

Arrestar to arrest; stop

Arriscar to risk, venture

Arruinar to ruin, destroy

Articular to articulate; to join, unite

Asaltar to assault, attack

Ascender .to ascend, climb, to promote

Asentir to assent, to agree

Asesinar to assassinate, murder

Asimilar to assimilate, digest, absorb

Asir to seize, take hold of

Asociar to associate

Aspirar to aspire, long for, seek, to inhale, breathe in

Asumir to assume

Atacar to attack

Atender to heed, pay attention, to attend to, take care of

Atentar to attempt, to try

Atenuar to attenuate, lessen, tone down, dim

Aterrar, aterrorizar to terrorize, frighten

Atestar to attest, testify, witness

Atormentar to torment; to worry, afflict; to tease, bother

Atribuir to attribute, ascribe, impute

Aumentar to augment, increase

Autorizar to authorize

Avaluar to value, appraise

Avanzar to advance

Avasallar to subject, dominate, subdue (Similar to vassal)

Aventurar to venture, risk

Avinagrar to sour, make sour or acid (Do you see vinegar?)

Balancear to balance, to rock, roll, to swing

Balotar to ballot, to vote

Basar to base

Batallar to battle, fight, struggle

Batear to bat

Batir to beat, whip

Beneficiar to benefit, do good

Calcular to calculate

Calibrar to gauge, measure; to measure the caliber of

Calmar to calm, quiet, soothe

Cancelar to cancel

Capitalizar to capitalize

Capitular to surrender

Capturar to capture, arrest

Cardar to card, comb (wool)

Catalogar to catalogue

Causar to cause

Ceder to cede, transfer; yield, surrender, submit

Celebrar to celebrate

Cementar to cement

Censurar to censure, criticize

Centrar to center

Certificar to certify; to register

Cesar to cease, stop, quit

Clarificar to clarify, make clear

Clasificar to classify

Coagular to coagulate, thicken

Coincidir to coincide

Colaborar to collaborate, work together

Colonizar to colonize

Colorar to color; to stain; to die

Comandar to command (troops)

Combinar to combine, unite

Comenzar to begin (Similar to commence)

Comisionar to commission

Conmemorar to commemorate

Comparar to compare

Compeler to compel, force

Compilar to compile

Completar to complete; to finish

Complicar to complicate

Computar to compute, calculate

Comunicar to communicate, to notify

Conceder to concede, grant; to admit

Concentrar to concentrate

Concernir to concern

Conciliar to conciliate, win over; to reconcile

Concluir to conclude, finish

Concordar to agree, to be in harmony (Similar to concord)

Concurrir to concur, meet together

Condensar to condense

Condenar to condemn; to sentence

Condescender to condescend

Condimentar to season (Similar to condiment)

Confiar to confide, entrust

Conectar to connect

Confederar to confederate

Conferir to confer; to give, bestow

Confesar to confess

Confirmar to confirm

Confiscar to confiscate

Conformar to adapt, adjust

Confortar to comfort, console

Confrontar to confront; to face

Congelar to congeal, to freeze

Congratular to congratulate

Congregar to congregate, call together

Conjeturar to conjecture, guess, surmise

Conjugar to conjugate

Consentir to consent, permit

Conservar to conserve, keep

Considerar to consider

Consignar to consign

Consistir to consist; to be based on

Consolar to console, cheer

Consolidar to consolidate, make solid

Conspirar to conspire, plot

Constituir to constitute, form

Construir to construct, build

Consultar to consult

Consumar to consummate, to complete

Consumir to consume; to waste

Contaminar to contaminate, defile

Contemplar to contemplate

Contener to contain, to restrain

Continuar to continue; to last

Contradecir to contradict

Contrastar to contrast

Contribuir to contribute

Controlar to control

Convencer to convince

Converger to converge

Convergir to converge

Conversar to converse

Convocar to convoke, call together

Convoyer to convoy, escort

Cooperar to cooperate

Coordinar to coordinate

Copiar to copy

Corroer to corrode

Cortar to cut; to cut off

Costar to cost

Crear to create

Cristalizar to crystallize

Criticar to criticize; to censure

Crucifar to crucify

Cuartear to quarter, divide into quarters

Culminar to culminate; to come to a climax

Culpar to blame; to declare guilty

Cultivar to cultivate

Cumplimentar to compliment

Curar to cure, heal

Danzar to dance

Datar to date

Debatir to debate, argue, discuss; to fight

Debilitar to weaken (Similar to debilitate)

Decaer to decay, decline

Decapitar to behead

Declamar to declaim, recite

Declarar to declare, state, affirm

Declinar to decline

Decorar to decorate, adorn

Dedicar to dedicate

Deducir to deduce, to conclude; to deduct

Defender to defend

Definir to define, explain

Deformar to deform; -se to become deformed

Defraudar to defraud, cheat, rob of

Degenerar to degenerate

Degradar to degrade; to debase

Delegar to delegate

Deliberar to deliberate, consider, ponder

Demandar to demand; to petition

Demoler to demolish, tear down

Demostrar to demonstrate, show, prove

Denigar to blacken, defame, revile, insult

Denominar to name, call, entitle

Denotar to denote, indicate, mean

Denunciar to denounce, accuse

Depender to depend, rely (on)

Deplorar to deplore, lament, regret

Deportar to deport, banish

Depositar to deposit

Depreciar to depreciate, lessen the value of

Derivar to derive

Descender to descend, go down

Descolorar to discolour; to fade

Desconectar to disconnect, bewilder, confuse

Describir to describe

Desecar to dry, to dry up, to drain (Similar to desiccate)

Desertar to desert, abandon

Desfigurar to disfigure; to deface; to distort

Designar to designate, appoint, select, to design, plan

Desilusionar to disillusion, disappoint, intend; -se to become disillusioned

Desinfectar to disinfect

Desistir to desist, stop, cease

Desorientar to throw off one´s bearings, to lead astray; to misdirect (Similar to disorient)

Destruir to destroy; to ruin

Detaller to detail, report in detail; to retail

Detener to detain, stop; to arrest

Deteriorar to deteriorate, damage; -se to deteriorate, become impaired or damaged, to wear out

Determinar to determine, to decide, to resolve

Detestar to detest

Detonar to detonate, explode with a loud noise

Devastar to devastate, lay waste, destroy

Devorar to devour, gobble up

Dialogar to dialogue

Dictar to dictate

Difamar to defame, libel, malign, slander

Dificultar to make difficult; -se to become difficult

Digerir to digest

Dilatar to dilate, widen, enlarge

Diluir to dilute

Discernir to discern; to distinguish; to discriminate

Disciplinar to discipline, train; to drill

Disecar to dissect

Diseminar to disseminate, scatter, spread

Disgustar to disgust, displease

Disociar to dissociate, separate

Disolver to dissolve; to melt

Dispersar to disperse, scatter

Disputar to dispute

Distinguir to distinguish

Distender to distend, stretch; to inflate

Distinguir to distinguish; -se to distinguish oneself

Distribuir to distribute

Divergir to diverge; to differ

Dividir to divide, split

Divorciar to divorce; to separate

Divulgar to divulge, spread, make public

Documentar to document

Domesticar to domesticate

Dominar to dominate, rule, lead

Donar to donate

Dramatizar to dramatize

Duplicar to duplicate

Eclipsar to eclipse; to outshine

Economizar to economize, save

Educar to educate, teach, train

Efectuar to effect, bring about

Elaborar to elaborate

Electrizar to electrify; to thrill, excite

Elevar to elevate, raise, lift

Eliminar to eliminate

Elucidar to elucidate, illustrate, explain

Emanar to emanate, spring, issue

Emancipar to emancipate, set free; -se to become free

Embarcar to embark, to ship

Embottelar to bottle, to bottle up

Emigrar to emigrate, to migrate

Emitir to emit, give off; to utter

Empacar to pack up, wrap up

Endosar to endorse (a cheque, draft, etc.)

Enervar to enervate, weaken

Entrar to enter, go in, come in

Enumerar to enumerate

Enunciar to enunciate, state, declare

Envidiar to envy

Equipar to equip, fit out

Errar to err, make mistakes

Escalar to scale; to climb

Escaldar to scald; to make red-hot

Escandalizar to scandalize, shock

Escapar to escape, flee, avoid

Escrutar to scrutinize

Especializar to specialize; -se to specialize in

Especificar to specify; to name

Especular to speculate

Espiar to spy

Esterilizar to sterilize

Estimar to esteem, regard highly; to estimate

Estimular to stimulate, excite, goad

Estipular to stipulate, specify

Estrangular to strangle; to choke, throttle

Estudiar to study

Evacuar to evacuate, empty; to vacate

Evadir to evade, elude

Evaluar to evaluate, appraise

Evaporar to evaporate

Examinar to examine; inspect

Exasperar to exasperate, irritate, annoy

Excavar to excavate

Exceder to exceed, surpass; to overdo

Excitar to excite, stir

Exclamar to exclaim

Excluir to exclude

Excomunicar to excommunicate

Excusar to excuse; to avoid, shun

Exhalar to exhale; to emit, give off

Exhibir to exhibit

Exhortar to exhort, admonish

Existir to exist

Exonerar to exonerate, free from blame

Expatriar to expatriate, exile

Expeler to expel, eject

Experimentar to experiment, try, test

Explicar to explain

Explorar to explore

Explotar to exploit, operate, develop

Exportar to export

Expresar to express, -se - to express oneself

Expulsar to expel, eject

Extender to extend; to spread; to unfold

Exterminar exterminate

Extinguir to extinguish, put out; to destroy

Fabricar to manufacture, fabricate, make, construct, build

Facilitar to facilitate, make easy

Falsificar to falsify, make false; to counterfeit

Familiarizar to familiarize, acquaint; -se to acquaint oneself

Fascinar to fascinate, bewitch, charm

Favorecer to favor, help, protect

Fermentar to ferment

Fertilizar to fertilize

Figurar to figure; to form; to represent, to symbolize

Filmar to film

Filtrar to filter

Finalizar to finalize, end

Financiar to finance

Flotar to float

Fluctuar to fluctuate; to waver; to hesitate

Fomentar to foment, encourage, promote, foster

Formalizar to give proper form to; to legalize; to make official

Formar to form; shape, mold

Formular to formulate, word

Fortificar to fortify

Forzar to force, compel

Fotografiar to photograph

Fracturar to fracture, break

Frecuentar to frequent

Frustrar to frustrate, thwart

Galopar to gallop

Generalizar to generalize

Germinar ´to germinate

Gesticular to gesticulate

Glorificar to glorify

Glosar to gloss. comment upon, explain (a text)

Graduar to graduate, give a diploma

Habitar to inhabit, live, reside

Honrar to honour; -se to be honored

Humiliar to humiliate, humble, lower, crush; -se to humiliate oneself

Idear to form an idea of, to devise, think out, plan

Identificar to identify

Ignorar to be ignorant of

Iluminar to illuminate, to light, to enlighten

Ilustrar to illustrate

Imbuir to imbue, to instill, to infuse, inspire (with)

Imitar to imitate

Impedir to impede, prevent, hinder

Impeler to impel, push; to incite, spur

Implantar to implant, establish, introduce

Implicar to imply, implicate, involve

Implorar to implore, entreat, beg

Impregnar to impregnate, saturate

Impresionar to impress, move, affect, stir; - to be stirred

Improvisar to improvise

Inaugurar to inaugurate, begin, open,

Incapacitar to cripple, disable, handicap, make useful

Incitar to incite, rouse, stir up

Inclinar to incline, to persuade

Inculcar to inculcate, instill, impress

Incurrir to incur, fall (into)

Indemnizar to indemnify, compensate

Indicar to indicate, show, point out

Inducir to induce; to persuade

Infectar to infect; to corrupt

Inferir to infer, to imply, to inflict

Infestar to infest, invade, overrun, plague; corrupt, infest

Infiltrar to filter through; infiltrate

Inflamar to inflame, excite; to kindle, to set on fire

Inflar to inflate; to exaggerate

Influir to influence

Informar to inform; to give form to

Infringir to infringe, break, violate

Iniciar to initiate; to begin

Injuriar to insult, offend, harm, damage

Inmigrar to immigrate

Inocular to inoculate

Inquirir to inquire, investigate

Inscribir to inscribe; to register, enroll

Insinuar to insinuate, to hint

Insistir to insist; persist

Inspecionar to inspect

Inspirar to inspire, to inhale

Instalar to install

Instigar to instigate

Instituir to institute

Insultar to insult

Interceder to intercede

Interceptar to intercept

Interesar to interest

Internar to intern, confine

Interpretar to interpret

Interrogar to interrogate, question

Intervenir to intervene

Intimar to announce, notify; to intimate, hint

Intimidar to intimidate

Intrigar to intrigue

Introducir to introduce

Inundar to inundate, to flood

Invadir to invade

Invalidar to render invalid; to void, to anul

Inventar to invent

Inventariar to inventory, take an inventory of

Invernar to winter, spend the winter

Investigar to investigate

Invitar to invite

Invocar to invoke

Irradiar to radiate

Irrigar to irrigate

Irritar to irritate

Justificar to justify; to vindicate

Lamentar to lament, deplore

Lancear to lance, spear

Legalizar to legalize

Legislar to legislate

Libertar to liberate, to set free, to free

Licenciar to license, to give a license or permit

Limitar to limit; restrict; to bound

Liquidar to liquidate; to settle (an account)

Localizar to localize

Lubricar to lubricate, oil, grease

Madurar to mature; to ripèn

Maltratar to treat badly; to misuse, abuse

Manifestar to manifest; to show

Manipular to manipulate, handle

Manufacturar to manufacture

Marcar to mark, stamp, brand; to note, observe

Masticar to chew (Like masticate)

Matricular enroll, register

Mediar to mediate, intervene

Meditar to mediate; to muse

Mencionar to mention

Ministrar to minister, to give (money, aid, etc.)

Mitigar to mitigate, soften, soothe

Modelar to model

Moderar to moderate, temper, restrain; to regulate; to restrain

Modificar to modify

Modular to modulate, tone down

Moldear to mold; to cast

Molestar to molest, disturb; bother, annoy

Monopolizar to monopolize; to corner (a market)

Montar to mount; to ride horseback

Mortificar to mortify; to torment

Motivar to cause; to give a cause for

Mover to move; to persuade

Movilizar to mobilize

Multiplicar to multiply

Murmurar to murmur

Mutilar to mutilate; to butcher

Narrar to narrate, tell, relate

Naturalizar to naturalize; to acclimatize

Navegar to navigate; to sail

Necesitar to necessitate; to need

Negociar to negotiate; to trade; to transact

Neutralizar to neutralize; counteract

Nominar to nominate

Normalizar to normalize

Notificar to notify

Objetar to object

Obligar to oblige; to obligate, to bind

Observar to observe; to watch

Obsesionar to obsess

Obtener to obtain, get; to attain

Ocasionar .to occasion, cause

Ocupar to occupy; to employ, to pay attention to

Ocurrir to occur

Odiar to hate (Similar to odious)

Oficiar to officiate, serve, minister

Operar to operate; to take effect

Opinar to express an opinion; to judge; to argue (Similar to opine)

Oponer to oppose (think of opponent)

Optar to choose, select (Think of opt for)

Ordenar to arrange, to put in order; to order, command

Organizar to organize

Orientar to orientate, orient

Originar to originate, cause to be

Ornamentar to ornament, adorn

Oscilar to oscillate, swing, sway

Oxidar to oxidize; to rust

Pacificar to pacify; to appease

Palpitar to palpitate; to throb, beat

Paralizar to paralyze, to stop

Participar to participate, share

Racionar to ration

Radiar to radiate; to radio; to broadcast

Ratificar to ratify

Razonar to reason; to discourse, talk; to argue

Reaccionar to react

Reajustar to readjust

Realizar to realize, fulfill

Reasumir to resume

Reavivir to revive

Recitar to recite

Reclinar to recline, lean

Recobrar to recover, regain

Recomendar to recommend; to commend, praise

Recompensar to recompense, reward; to compensate

Reconciliar to reconcile

Reconstruir to reconstruct, rebuild

Rectificar to rectify, correct, amend

Recuperar to recuperate, recover, regain

Reducir to reduce; to diminish

Reemplazer to replace; top substitute

Referir to refer

Refinar to refine; to purify

Reflexionar to reflect, meditate

Reformar to reform; to correct, amend

Refrescar to refresh, renew; to cool, to get cool (weather)

Refutar to refute

Registrar to examine, inspect, scrutinize; to register, record

Regular to regulate; to adjust

Regularizar to regulate, make regular

Reiterar to reiterate, repeat

Relajar to relax; to slacken

Relegar to relegate, banish

Remediar to remedy; to help; to avoid

Remunerar to remunerate, compensate

Renovar to renovate; to renew

Reposar to repose; to rest

Representar to represent

Reprochar to reproach

Reproducir to reproduce

Repudiar to repudiate; to disown

Repulsar to repulse, repel, reject

Reputar to repute

Requerir to require; to need

Reservar to reserve; to put aside

Residir to reside; to dwell

Resignar to resign; to hand over

Resistir to resist; to tolerate

Resolver to resolve

Respirar to breathe

Restaurar to restore; to recover

Retardar to retard, delay

Retener to retain; to keep

Retornar to return; to give back

Reunir to reunite; to unite

Revelar to reveal

Reverenciar to revere; venerate

Revertir to revert

Revisar to revise; to review

Revistar review, inspect (troops)

Revivir to revive

Revocar to revoke, repeal

Rivalizar to rival, compete

Robar to rob, steal

Sacrificar to sacrifice

Salar to salt; to cure or preserve with salt

Saludar to salute, greet

Salvar to save

Sancionar to sanction; to authorize, ratify

Satirizar to satirize

Satisfacer to satisfy; to pay (a debt)

Saturar to saturate, satiate

Sazonar to season; to flavor

Seccionar to section

Secretar to secrete

Secuestrar to seize; to kidnap; to confiscate (Similar to sequester)

Secundar to second

Seducir to seduce; entice

Separar to separate

Sermonear to preach; to admonish; reprimand (Similar to sermon)

Sertpentear to wind, twist, turn, zigzag (Similar to serpent)

Servir to serve; to be of use

Significar to signify; to mean

Simpatizar to sympathize (with)

Simplificar to simplify

Simular to simulate, feign

Sindicar to syndicate

Situar to locate; to place; -se to be located, placed, situated

Sofocar to suffocate, choke; to smother

Solar to sole (shoes)

Solazar to console, cheer, comfort (Similar to solace)

Solicitar to solicit

Solidificar to solidify

Sonar to sound; to ring

Soportar to support, hold up

Subsistir to subsist; to exist; to last

Subordinar to subordinate, to subdue

Sucumbir to succumb; to yield

Sufrir to suffer

Sugerir to suggest; to hint

Sumar to add up; to sum up

Suplantar to supplant

Suplementar to supplement

Surgir to surge; rise

Suscribir to subscribe

Suspender to suspend; to hang

Sustituir to substitute

Terminar to terminate, end

Testimoniar to give testimony of; to serve as a witness

Tolerar to tolerate; to allow; to overlook

Torpedear to torpedo

Torturar to torture

Tostar to toast; to tan

Triunfar to triumph; to trump (at cards)

Trotar to trot; to hurry

Unir to unite, to join; to bring together

Utilizar to utilize; to use

Vacilar to vacillate, waver, hesitate

Valuar to value, price, appraise, to rate

Variar to vary; to change; to shift; to differ

Vegetar to vegetate

Venerar to venerate

Ventilar to ventilate; to air

Verificar to verify; to confirm

Vibrar to vibrate

Vigorizar to invigorate, tone up, to give vigor to

Vindicar to vindicate; to avenge

Visitar to visit; to inspect

Vomitar to vomit

Votar to vote



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