|A Glossary of 500|
ABBREVIATE To reduce in length, duration, etc. To make
a story, a film, etc. briefer. To shorten a word or phrase by omitting letters.
See also ELABORATE
ABDICATE To renounce or relinquish a throne, right,
or claim. To resign or give up an office, power, authority, etc., particularly
in public affairs. To relinquish power.
ABROGATE To cancel, repeal, annul, abolish formally
or by official or authoritative act. To put aside or put an end to. See also NULLIFY
ACCENTUATE To emphasize or give prominence to
(something). To attribute special importance to. To pronounce or mark with an
accent. See also EMPHASIZE
ACCLIMATIZE To accustom, or become accustomed, to a new
climate, environment, or conditions. To adapt. To acclimate. See also NATURALIZE
ACCOMMODATE To adapt, adjust, or reconcile to. To
resolve a difference, harmonize, or make suitable or consistent. To oblige,
particularly by performing a kindness or favor. To hold, have space for, or
provide lodging for. See also HARMONIZE RECONCILE
ACCOMPANY To go
(somewhere) with someone to provide companionship or as escort, etc. To join
one or more persons (or things) in action or in causing something to be done.
Also, to occur in association with (one or more other persons or things).
Finally, to play in accompaniment of someone else.
ACCOMPLISH To perform, fulfill, carry out, complete, or
bring to a successful conclusion. To bring to a conclusion. See also EXECUTE
ACCREDIT To recognize or certify a school, college, or
other educational institution as fulfilling specified requirements. Also to
officially recognize an ambassador of a foreign government or an envoy, etc. To
make creditable or authoritative, or provide
with credentials. In addition, to ascribe to or attribute to. See also RECOGNIZE
ACKNOWLEDGE To take notice of, show or express
recognition or realization of, or reply to. To show or express gratitude for.
To recognize the existence or truth of. To recognize the authority or claims of
(someone) or validity (of something). In law, to recognize as binding or of
legal force. Finally, to report the receipt of (something). See also RECOGNIZE
ACTIVATE To make active. In chemistry, to make a
catalyst, carbon, or other molecule active, or facilitate or hasten a chemical
reaction. To aerate sewage in order to hasten decomposition. In physics, to
excite or make radioactive. Also, to place a military unit on an active status
or resurrect to a state of readiness any dormant organization. See also INITIATE EMBATTLE REACTIVATE
ACTUALIZE To make or become actual. To realize in fact
or action. See also VISUALIZE
ADJUDICATE To sit in judgment or determine or settle an
issue judicially. To pronounce or decree judgment or judicial sentence. Also,
to act as a judge in a contest. See also EXECUTE TESTIFY
ADMINISTER To manage or direct business affairs, an
estate, trust, etc. To act as an administrator. To give, provide, contribute,
dispense, serve (justice, sacraments, medicine, etc.). To tender an oath to
someone. To manage or wind up a decedent's estate by the executor or
administrator, or manage a trust by its trustee.
ADULATE To praise fulsomely. To admire excessively.
ADULTERATE To make impure. To debase by using cheaper,
inferior, or less desirable materials or elements in the production or
marketing, if supposedly a genuine article. See also PURIFY
ADVOCATE To plead on behalf of, use persuasion in
support of, push for by argument, recommend publicly. See also AGITATE
AGGLUTINATE To unite or
join together, as if with glue. To cause to adhere, as if by glue.
AGGREGATE To collect or bring together into one body.
To combine into one mass, collection, or total. To sum or total. See also CALCULATE
AGITATE To shake or move briskly, to move to and fro
in a violent way. To impart motion to. To attempt to arouse public interest in,
call attention to, or debate an idea, cause, or social or political issue. To
attempt to stir up feelings and involve the public emotionally by writing or
through demonstrations, slogans, etc. in order to create disorder or demand reform. See also FLUCTUATE
ALLEVIATE To lessen or moderate. To relieve,
particularly pain. To make easier to endure. To mitigate. See also MITIGATE MODERATE PALLIATE
ANIMATE To give life to. To have a direct or
inspiring influence upon. To motivate or encourage, enliven, or add zest or
spirit to. To make cheerful, lively, vivacious, or vigorous. To actuate, move
to action. See also ENLIVEN
ANNIHILATE To destroy completely, reduce to ruins, wipe
from existence, defeat completely. To annul, nullify, cancel the effect of. See
ANNOTATE To supply
with explanatory or critical notes written on, or for, a book or document. To
make notes or annotations.
ANTAGONIZE To make hostile or provoke to enmity. To
compete with, or make an antagonist or enemy of. Oppose, act in opposition to.
See also EMBITTER
ANTICIPATE To foresee,
feel or realize in advance, or look forward to, often accompanied by emotion,
whether pleasant or painful. To achieve in advance of something or before
someone else. To consider in advance.
APOLOGIZE To express
one's regret that (something), which one has done, was wrong. To express regret
for an insult made, injury sustained, failure experienced, or fault incurred.
Also, to make a formal defense of one's involvement by speech or writing.
APPERTAIN To pertain or relate. To belong as a past
right, part, attribute, possession, etc.
APPREHEND To arrest legally, capture, or take into
custody. To understand, grasp the meaning of, perceive. To expect with anxiety,
fear, or suspicion. To be apprehensive. See also INCARCERATE SURRENDER
APPROPRIATE To take possession of (something) for
oneself, or for one's own property. To expropriate, seize, or take without
consent. To legislate, authorize, or set apart, for a particular use. To devote
to special purposes. Suitable for a particular occasion or purpose. Belonging
to, or associated with, to a certain person. See also ARROGATE EXPROPRIATE
closely in amount, position, character, or other characteristic, or be almost
the same. To give be roughly equal to or correct.
To estimate, simulate, or
imitate. See also IMITATE SIMULATE
ARROGATE To claim for oneself without right. To
improperly appropriate to oneself or assign a quality or attribute to another
without just reason. To claim presumptuously. See also APPROPRIATE
ARTICULATE To pronounce
words and syllables clearly and distinctly. To enunciate. To pronounce with
clarity. To give clarity to. Also, to unite by joints. See also ENUNCIATE VERBALIZE
ASPIRATE To inhale
fluid into the bronchi and lungs. Also, to remove fluid from the lungs or a
body cavity by means of an aspirator. To pronounce the beginning of a word or
syllable with an h sound.
ASSIMILATE To take in and incorporate as one's own. To
absorb (e.g., food into one's system, immigrants into a society), to make one's
own. To make like, become like, bring into conformity, cause to resemble. See
ASSOCIATE To join as a partner, ally, or companion. To
keep company, as a friend or comrade. To unite, combine, or enter into a union
with, or participate in a cooperative capacity. To connect with (someone or something) in thoughts or feelings.
See also ACCOMPANY
ATTENUATE To make
thin, fine, or slender. To weaken or reduce in force, intensity, effect,
quantity, or value. To dilute (a liquid).
AUTHENTICATE To establish as genuine or valid. To make
authoritative. To establish conclusively the authorship or origin of,
particularly through techniques of scholarship. See also VALIDATE
AUTHORIZE To empower. To give authority, official or
legal power, or right to.(do something) To give permission for. To formally
sanction (an act or proceeding), delegate power to, or establish by usage.
BARRICADE To block or
obstruct with a barricade. To shut in or defend with an barricade or
obstruction, particularly one created quickly across a street or road.
BEAUTIFY To make or
become beautiful, adorn, embellish, enhance. See also DISFIGURE EMBELLISH
BEDAZZLE To dazzle completely. To impress forcefully
someone so that he or she is blinded to the truth or oblivious to faults or
shortcomings. See also OVERWHELM
BENEFIT To do good
to, or be of service to. To receive help or benefit. To derive advantage or profit.
To make improvement.
BIFURCATE To fork or
divide into two branches.
BIVOUAC To rest,
assemble, or spend the night in a temporary (military) camp that uses
improvised shelters. It has no tents, except for pup tents. See also MANOEUVER
CALCIFY To make or become calcareous or bony;
hardened by the deposit of calcium salts. To make or become rigid.
intransigent, inflexible, or unwilling or unable to adapt, as in political
philosophy or intellectual position. See also OSSIFY
CALCULATE To determine or ascertain by mathematical
method. To determine by reasoning, practical experience, or common sense. To
think, guess, or count. To intend, plan, or arrange, for a particular purpose.
See also AGGREGATE
To test the accuracy of
a measuring instrument (and rectify) by comparison against an independent
standard. To check and/or rectify the scale or gradations, graduations, or
other indexes of degree, of any instrument, which provides quantitative
measurements. Also, to determine the correct range for an artillery gun,
mortar, etc., by observing where the fired projectile lands. See also RECTIFY
CAPTIVATE To charm, enchant, or enthrall, as by beauty
or excellence. To take captive. To capture, subjugate.
CASTIGATE To criticize or rebuke severely. To punish
in order to correct. See also DISCIPLINE EXCORIATE
CELEBRATE To praise widely, or to present to
widespread and favorable notice, as by newspapers, novels, etc. To commemorate
an event by means of festivities and ceremonies. To perform publicly a
religious ceremony. To observe or honor a special occasion or event. To praise,
sing the glories of. To seize an occasion for being festive. See also FELICITATE
CIRCUMSCRIBE To draw a line around, encircle, surround. To
mark the perimeter, enclose within bounds. To set limits to, confine, restrict.
In geometry, define, or mark off. See also DELINEATE
make a savage, uneducated, or rude state civil. To endow with law, order, and
conditions favorable to the development of arts and sciences. To enlighten and
refine the manners and tastes of private and social life.
CLARIFY To make an idea or statement, etc.,
understandable, clear, and intelligible. To free from ambiguity. Also, to make
a liquid) pure and transparent. To remove solids from a liquid. Finally, to
free the mind of confusion. See also COMPLICATE
To organize and arrange in order by class. To group based on
common characteristics or properties. To assign to a classification to
(information, a document, etc.). Also, to restrict the availability of certain
information to authorized persons.
COAGULATE To change from a liquid into a thickened
mass. To congeal, or cause to congeal, into a jellylike state. To precipitate
(from a solution). See also PRECIPITATE
CO-EXIST To exist
peaceably side-by-side. To exist together at peace despite conflicting
COINCIDE To occur at
the same time or occupy the same space or same relative position. To be equal
in some non-spatial aspect. To correspond precisely in nature, character, etc.
COMMISSION To authorize; commit, or give in charge. To
give the order that puts (a warship, military command, etc.) into commission.(a
state of readiness for active duty). To send on a mission. To give a commission
to. See also ACTIVATE
COMMUNICATE To Impart
knowledge or transmit, feelings, information, diseases, etc. by speaking or
writing. To enable others to understand one's ideas. To maintain contact
through words and/or signals. To be joined by a common door, gate, etc. Also,
to receive Communion.
COMPENSATE To repay (someone) for a loss or a benefit
or service previously provided. To adjust, offset, or counterbalance (a force)
or make up for something.
To provide a means of
neutralizing variations. See also INDEMNIFY RECOMPENSE
COMPLICATE To make complex, intricate, involved,
difficult or confused. To cause to be more difficult to treat. See also CLARIFY FACILITATE SIMPLIFY
COMPROMISE To settle a dispute through mutual
concessions representing modification of positions. To bring under suspicion or
exposure to loss of reputation. To endanger the reputation of. To affect
unfavorably. See also MEDIATE NEGOTIATE
CONCENTRATE To bring or
draw together into a single mass, or to one common center. To focus on a
limited objective. To intensify, make denser, stronger, and purer by reducing
the non-essentials and foreign elements.
CONCILIATE To reconcile or make compatible views
conflicting views. To placate, overcome
distrust or hostility; win over. To earn goodwill or favor by adoption of a
welcoming and comforting approach. See also COMPROMISE MEDIATE
CONDESCEND To behave patronizingly. To behave as if
believing to possess a superior rank and doing something, which is beneath
one's dignity, in order to appear gracious to those of lower rank. Also, to
waive dignity or the pretense of superiority voluntarily and assume equality
with a person of lower status. See also PATRONIZE
CONGREGATE To come or
bring together as a group or body, or collect in a mass. To assemble together
in a crowd, especially in large numbers.
CONJUGATE In grammar,
to recite or set out some, or all, voices, moods, tenses, persons, and forms of a verb, in order.
Also, to join together, especially in pairs or in marriage. To unite or fuse
together, to undergo conjugation.
CONSECRATE To devote or dedicate to a particular
purpose. To make or declare sacred or holy. To dedicate to, or set apart for,
the service of the Deity. To make someone a king or bishop by means of
religious rite. To make something an object of veneration. See also DEDICATE SANCTIFY
CONSIDER To ponder, deliberate, reflect on, or think
about before making a decision. To
assess the advantages and disadvantages of. Also, to regard with thoughtfulness and respect. See also RECONSIDER
make firm, or become solid. To make or compress into a compact mass. To
combine, merge, or bring together into a single whole.
CONSTITUTE To compose, form, create, make up. To
establish, set up, or give legal form to, such as a court, tribunal, assembly,
etc. To possess certain qualities. To establish laws To appoint too an office
or function. See also RECONSTITUTE
CONTEMPLATE To survey or observe thoughtfully. To
consider attentively. To meditate, ponder, or study. To have a purpose or
intention concerning the object of contemplation, but for a future time. See
go on with an action or remain on a course. To remain in existence or at a
particular place or in the present condition. To last or endure. To extend or
prolong someone's employment or tenure.
CONTRIBUTE To give money, time, knowledge, food or other
assistance, often with others, for a charitable purpose, or to a common supply,
fund (e.g., office coffee fund, condominium owners' association). To furnish an
original written work) for publication, such as an article to a newspaper or
other periodical. To help to make something happen. See also VOLUNTEER
CONVALESCE To recover one's health following a
prolonged illness, especially gradually. To become grow stronger following an
illness; To progressively recover one's health. See also RECUPERATE
communicate, particularly by letter. Also, to be in agreement, conformity, or harmony. To be analogous or
similar. To be similar or equivalent in position or function, amount, etc.
To act in opposition
to. To neutralize. To frustrate or defeat by contrary action. See also NEUTRALIZE
CULMINATE To complete, conclude, end, or bring to a
close or climax. To terminate at the summit or highest point or
development To form or rise to an apex.
See also TERMINATE
CULTIVATE To prepare
and work on land in order to raise plants or crops. To promote or improve plant
growth by work and attention. To produce by culture. To develop, improve, or
refine, whether by training, education, or experience.
DEBILITATE To weaken
the body. To enfeeble.
DECELERATE To reduce
velocity. To slow down. To diminish speed.
DECIMATE To destroy or
kill a great number, or proportion, of a given population. Also, to put to
death every tenth cowardly or mutinous soldier. Alternatively, put to death one
man in ten, but selecting those to kill by lot. See also ANNIHILATE
DECIPHER To interpret the meaning of poor or
partially obliterated writing, or of anything that is difficult to understand
or obscure, such as hieroglyphics. To convert transmitted in cipher into plain
writing. To interpret by use of a key.
DEDICATE To set apart and consecrate with solemn rite
to a deity or to a sacred use. To devote wholly to any serious purpose or
person. To inscribe (a book, piece of music, etc.) in honor of someone or a
particular cause. See also CONSECRATE
DEFIBRILATE To arrest
fibrillation. To restore an irregular beating to a normal heart rhythm.
DEFOCUS To lose
focus. To deflect a beam of light off correct focus.
DEFOLIATE To strip (a tree, bush, or other plant) of
(leaves. To destroy an area of forest, jungle, etc. by chemical spray or other
means in order to do away with places of concealment.
DELINEATE To sketch or trace in outline; illustrate by
drawing, show pictorially;
To portray, outline, or
describe precisely in words. See also CIRCUMSCRIBE
DENIGRATE To speak disparagingly of; criticize in a
derogatory manner. To sully; defame or blacken someone's character. See also DISPARAGE
DENOMINATE To give a name to, designate, denote. See
DEPRECATE To express earnest disapproval of (someone
or something). To protest against, belittle, depreciate, urge against. See also
DEPRECIATE To decline or diminish in value. To reduce
the value or stated value of an asset. To claim as an allowable expense of an
income-producing property when filing one's income tax return. To belittle or
represent as having little value. To reduce the purchasing value of money. See
DEPUTIZE To act as a
deputy or appoint as a deputy.
DEROGATE To detract,
take away part from a right, etc. To repeal a law or take away from authority,
estimation, etc. To fall away, go astray, particularly in conduct or
DESECRATE To profane or treat with sacrilege. To
outrage the sacred or hallowed character or sanctity of (something). To divert
to a profane purpose from a sacred use. See also VIOLATE
DESEGREGATE To abandon the practice of segregation,
particularly racial segregation. See also DISCRIMINATE
DESELECT To dismiss
or release someone from a position or program for which he or she had
previously been selected.
DESENSITIZE To make
unaware of, or indifferent in feeling, or the like. To lessen an abnormal
sensitivity of one's body to an external stimulus, such as a particular
allergen. In photography, to render less sensitive or entirely insensitive to
light, as an emulsion on a film.
DESICCATE To dry thoroughly, especially for
preservation. To dehydrate or become dehydrated. To deprive of moisture. To
become dried up. See also RECONSTITUTE
DESIGNATE To indicate, denote, show, identify,
signify, or serve as distinctive mark. To name, entitle, describe. To nominate
or select for an office, purpose, or duty, etc. See also DENOMINATE SIGNIFY
DEVALUE To devaluate. To reduce the legal value of a
currency that is in crisis or under pressure. See also DEPRECIATE
DEVASTATE To lay waste to, ravage, overwhelm, render
obsolete. See also OVERWHELM
DEVELOP To come into
being; grow, and expand, or cause to begin, grow, and expand. To cause to
follow the natural process of evolution from a lower stage of development to a
later and more complex state. To bring to an advanced state. To realize or
achieve what previously was only an idea or potential. Also, to describe, or
elaborate on, in detail. In addition, in photography, to treat an exposed plate
or film chemically so that the image will appear. In mathematics, to expand to
DEVIATE To turn aside
or depart from a course, route, way, custom, topic, etc. To swerve or diverge
or digress from a course of action, way, procedure, acceptable norm, or line of
though. Also to cause to turn aside or depart from.
DISAGREE To fail to
agree. To differ in opinion, dissent. To quarrel, squabble. To prove harmful or
unsuitable for digestion. To cause physical discomfort.
DISAPPOINT To fail to meet the expectations, desires,
hopes, or plans of someone or oneself. To defeat, thwart, or frustrate the
fulfillment of expectations, desires, hopes, or plans. Thwart, frustrate. See
DISAPPROVE To withhold approval, refuse to sanction. To
have or express an unfavorable opinion of. See also DEPRECATE
DISBELIEVE To refuse to
believe or accept as true. To have no faith in.
DISCIPLINE To train by
instruction, exercise; drill, and exercise of firm control. To correct,
chastise, and punish or penalize for failure to follow direction. See also CASTIGATE FLAGELLATE
DISCOLOR To stain,
fade, or spoil the color of (something). To become stained, faded, or changed
or spoiled in color.
DISCOMFIT To confuse,
deject defeat in battle, rout, thwart, foil, frustrate the plans of (someone).
DISCONCERT To derange,
perturb, upset the plans of, confuse, throw into disorder, confusion, or
disarray. To disrupt, disturb, or ruffle the self-confidence of (someone).
DISCONNECT To detach,
sever, or break the connection between. To cause to be connected no
DISCONTINUE To stop, give up or come to an end,
terminate or put an end to, or cease using or abandon, or to cause to do so. In
law, to abandon or terminate a claim, suit, or action. See also TERMINATE
DISCREDIT To injure the
credit or reputation for trustworthiness of someone or something. To reduce
trust, belief, or confidence (someone or something). To attach no credence to,
or disbelieve, (someone or something). To distrust.
DISCRIMINATE To notice or distinguish differences
between, or among, things, persons, or groups. To accurately observe
differences between, or among. To make
a choice in favor of, or against, someone or something, on the basis of the
group or category to which he, she, or it belongs. See also DESEGREGATE
DISEMBARK To go or put
ashore from a ship.
DISEMBODY To divest a
body of a soul or spirit. To separate from the body. Also, to separate the
intangible, such as an idea, from the tangible.
To free from
enchantment or illusion. Disillusion. See also DISILUSION
To free from
encumbrance. To unburden. See also ENCUMBER
DISENGAGE To free, detach, or release (oneself) from
attachment, connection, obligation, pledge, or engagement. To break loose,
separate, loosen, unfasten. To cause the gears of a motor vehicle to stop
supplying torque to the axles and wheels. To remove troops from combat, to
break off action.
DISENTANGLE To free, or become free, from entanglement.
Unravel, untangle, extricate. To restore to order, free from complication. See
also ENTANGLE. EXTRICATE
DISFIGURE To mar the appearance or beauty of. To
deform or deface.
DISFRANCHISE To deprive a citizen of his or her rights of
citizenship, such as the right to cast a vote. To deprive of any franchise,
privilege or right. See also ENFRANCHISE
DISGRUNTLE To make
discontent. To peeve, irritate, or cause to be petulant.
discourage, dispirit, or depress. See also ENCOURAGE
DISHONOR To treat disrespectfully. To deprive of
honor, to bring shame or disgrace on,
or reproach to (someone). Also, (a bank) to refuse to pay or accept a check. To
rape or seduce. See also STIGMATIZE
DISILLUSION To disenchant. To deprive of illusion or
free from illusion. See also DISENCHANT
DISINTEGRATE To separate into component parts or break
into fragments. To go to pieces or reduce to pieces .To lose unity or destroy
the cohesion of. See also INTEGRATE
DISINTER To remove
from the place of interment, take from the grave, exhume. To unearth.
DISORDER To confuse,
disarrange, destroy the regular order or arrangement of. To upset (someone's)
physical or mental health, or functions.
DISORIENT To cause someone to lose his or her way. To
make someone unsure of his or her bearings, or where he belongs, by removing or
obscuring something that has served as a guide to him or his group, or culture,
such as customs, moral standards, etc. In psychiatry, to cause someone to lose
a sense of time, place or personal identity. See also ORIENT
DISPARAGE To belittle, deprecate, speak poorly of,
treat slightingly of; depreciate. To bring discredit on, speak to the detriment
of someone. See also DEPRECIATE DISCREDIT
DISPOSSESS To deprive (someone) of property,
particularly real property. To oust or dislodge someone. To rid someone of an
evil spirit. See also EXORCISE EXPROPRIATE
DISREGARD To pay no
attention to, ignore, pay no heed to. To treat as not mattering. To omit from
consideration, treat without due regard, respect or attentiveness. To slight.
DISSATISFY To fail to satisfy. To cause displeasure,
especially by failing to provide what was expected or desired. To make
discontented. See also SATISFY
DISSEMBLE To cloak, conceal, disguise (thoughts,
feelings, character, intentions), fail to mention. To give a false impression,
conceal the real motives or nature, feign, put on appearances. To be a hypocrite. See also OBFUSCATE PREVARICATE
DISSEMINATE To spread
abroad (information, beliefs, etc.), promulgate extensively; broadcast;
disperse, or scatter widely, as if sowing seeds. See also PROPAGATE
DISSIPATE To break up and drive away, dispel, disperse,
scatter in various directions. To waste, squander, fritter away. To indulge in
extravagant, intemperate, or dissolute behavior. See also OVERINDULGE
DISSOCIATE To separate, disunite, sever the
association. To keep apart in one's mind. In psychiatry, to subject to
dissociation. In chemistry, to separate a compound into simpler constituents,
which can be recombined under other conditions. See also ASSOCIATE
DISTINGUISH To recognize
(something) as distinct or different from other things. To perceive the
differences in features or characteristics of two or more objects. To make distinct, make out, characterize. To
discern clearly by sight or other sense the differences. See also RECOGNIZE
DISUNITE To sever the union of, separate, part,
disjoin, set at variance, alienate, fall apart. To destroy the harmony or
solidarity of. See also INTEGRATE
DOCUMENT To support
by documentary evidence. To set down in writing.
DOMESTICATE To convert to domestic use, accustom to
household life or affairs, tame (animals), cause to feel at home. To make fond
of home and used to (or skilled) in household affairs. See also ACCLIMATIZE
DOMINATE To exert authority, domination, power over.
To govern, control, or rule over. To tower above, overshadow, hold a commanding
position over, be predominant. See also LIBERATE PREDOMINATE
DRAMATIZE To behave dramatically about (an undramatic,
everyday situation). To exaggerate in histrionics. To express or represent
emotionally, strikingly, or vividly. To put a novel or other work of art into a
form suitable for the stage. See also INTERPRET OVERACT UNDERPLAY
DUPLICATE To repeat or perform again, or cause to be
repeated or performed again. To make in duplicate. To make one or more exact
copies of. To double or make double (for or of someone or something). See also REPLICATE
ELABORATE To make or develop to perfection something
that is complicated. To work out carefully in detail, often excessive. See also
ELEVATE To raise to
a higher level, state, office, rank or dignity. To increase in price, value,
importance, position, etc. To move to a higher moral or intellectual level. To
encourage (hopes) or raise (sprits). Exalt. Promote. See also ENNOBLE
ELICIT To bring forth in response. To evoke. To
draw out through questioning. See also INTERROGATE
ELIMINATE To get rid
of. To void or expel from an organism. To omit or cause to be no longer
included. To remove, especially for offensive, undesirable, or below standard.
In mathematics, to remove a factor or quantity from an equation.
ELONGATE To lengthen
or make longer. To extend or draw out to greater length.
ELUCIDATE To make
easier to understand. To make lucid, clear. To explain. See also EXPLICATE
ELUTRIATE To separate
the light particles from the heavy particles of a mixture by washing and
decanting. To purify by washing and straining (or decanting).
EMACIATE To make thin
by a gradual wasting away of flesh. To become or make lean. as if by hunger and
EMANATE To emit,
send forth, or originate. To issue, flow, or proceed, as from a source.
EMANCIPATE To set free from oppression, slavery,
bondage, or restrictive rules or conventions, etc. To end parental control
over. See also LIBERATE
EMBARRASS To cause to feel uncomfortably
self-conscious, awkward, or ashamed. To abash, disconcert, or cause shame. To
hinder, impede, or make things difficult or complicated for. To burden with
financial difficulties. See also DISHONOR
EMBATTLE To arrange in order of battle, arm, prepare
for battle. To fortify a town, camp, etc. See also ACTIVATE MANEUVER
EMBELLISH To beautify
or make more decorative by ornamentation. To adorn or ornament. To enhance a
narrative or statement with fictitious details or additions in order to
increase one's interest in telling it or listening to it. See also BEAUTIFY ILLUMINATE
EMBITTER To make hostile or bitter, or more bitter.
To cause to bear rancor or have hard feelings. See also ANTAGONIZE
EMBOWER To cover,
enclose, or shelter, as though in a bower. To surround or cover with foliage.
See also DEFOLIATE
EMBROCATE To moisten
and rub with a liniment or lotion to relieve muscular stiffness or pain.
EMIGRATE To leave one's country or region and settle
in another. To cause or help someone to emigrate. To migrate. See also EXPATRIATE IMMIGRATE
EMPHASIZE To give emphasis to, lay stress upon, or
deliberate accent to, a word or syllable in order to make obvious its meaning
or intention. To similarly give special emphasis to an action in order to
convey an attitude or feeling. See also ACCENTUATE UNDERSCORE
EMULATE To imitate in an effort to do equally well
as (someone else) or to excel. See also IMITATE
ENAMOR To inspire
or inflame with love, charm or delight.
ENCOUNTER To come upon
or meet unexpectedly. To meet in conflict or battle, or as rivals in sport. To
contend with (difficulties, opposition, etc).
ENCOURAGE To inspire or lend courage or confidence to.
To raise the spirit or hopes of. To stimulate by approval, assistance,
sympathetic advice, and interest. To reinforce a belief. To make it easier (for
someone to do something). See also DISHEARTEN
ENCUMBER To burden or
weigh down, as with obligations or debt. To hamper, impede, or retard. To block
or fill with what is superfluous or obstructive. See also DISENCUMBER JETTISON
ENDEAVOR To make an
effort (to do or effect something). To attempt or try to. To strive. To exert
oneself (to do something).
ENERVATE To deprive of
nerve or willpower. To weaken or destroy the force or strength of. To lessen
the vigor or vitality of. See also EXHILARATE INNERVATE VITALIZE
ENFRANCHISE To grant political rights to one or more
persons, particularly the right to vote. To endow a town, city, or constituency
with municipal or parliamentary rights. to liberate, as from slavery. See also DISFRANCHISE
ENGENDER To procreate, beget, or give rise to. To
cause to come into existence or to produce or be produced. See also GENERATE
ENGINEER To design, manage, arrange, or execute by
skill, craft, or ingenuity in order to achieve a result. To act as an engineer
or carry out an engineering work. See also EXECUTE
ENKINDLE To kindle into flame, activity, or ardor,
etc. See also EXTINGUISH
instruct or inform. To impart knowledge to. To provide information or
intellectual or spiritual advice to someone. To help someone to understand
something that is difficult or obscure. To shed light on (a problem). To free
from prejudice, ignorance, or superstition.
ENLIVEN To make more lively, gay, active, sprightly,
or vigorous. To make brighter, more gay, more cheerful. To lend animation to.
See also ANIMATE
ENNOBLE To elevate in degree, excellence, dignity,
or respect. To make spiritually, intellectually or morally elevated. To elevate
to the ranks of nobility. To exalt. See also ELEVATE
ENTANGLE To ensnarl, ensnare, make tangled; or
enmesh. To make into a tangle or complicated mix-up. To involve in
difficulties. To confuse or perplex. See also DISENTANGLE
ENUMERATE To mention individually as in counting. To
name or specify each item. To count, ascertain the number of. See also NUMERATE
ENUNCIATE To utter or
pronounce words, sentences, sounds, syllables, etc., especially in a particular
manner. To articulate. To state, give expression to, announce, or proclaim. See
ENVELOP To cover
completely, shroud, or wrap, as in a covering, especially a garment. To
ENVISAGE To visualize, make a mental picture of. To
contemplate or foresee the possibility of. See also VISUALIZE
EQUALIZE To make even
or uniform. To make equal to (e.g., score a tying goal).
EQYILIBRATE To balance
equally two or more things against each other (e.g., weights, forces). To
keep in equilibrium.
EQUIVOCATE To use
ambiguous or unclear expressions, rather than a clear answer or statement,
usually to avoid commitment or to mislead. To hedge or prevaricate. See also OBFUSCATE PREVARICATE
ERADICATE To stamp out
or destroy completely, remove, extricate, or erase by rubbing or using a
ESCALATE To increase
in magnitude or intensity gradually but steadily. To rise or descend, or raise
or lower, as on an escalator.
EULOGIZE To praise
highly in speech or writing. To write or deliver a eulogy.
EUPHEMIZE To express
by means of euphemism.
EVANGELIZE To teach or
preach the Christian gospel, convert to Christianity, help to spread the word
of the Christian gospel, or act as an evangelist.
EXACERBATE To increase the bitterness or violence of
(ill feelings, a quarrel, a disease, etc.). To provoke (someone) to anger. To
aggravate, exasperate, or irritate. To cause (a disease) to become more
serious. See also MODERATE MOLLIFY
EXASPERATE To annoy or
irritate extremely. To infuriate. To cause to become more bitter or violent.
See also EMBITTER
EXCORIATE To strip or remove skin by rubbing, tearing,
scalding, etc. To criticize severely. To denounce or berate unmercifully. To
verbally flay. See also CASTIGATE
EXCULPATE To free from blame. To clear from a charge
of guilt or fault. Vindicate See also EXONERATE VINDICATE
EXECUTE To do, perform, carry out, put into effect,
accomplish, discharge, fulfill, or produce according to a plan. In law, to draw
up in correct legal form, to give effect or force (to a law, decree, judgment,
etc.) or to make valid by signing, witnessing and delivering an
appropriate instrument, etc. In
addition, to inflict capital punishment on someone sentenced to death. See also
ACCOMPLISH FORMALIZE IMPLEMENT
EXEMPLIFY To show or illustrate by example. To serve
as an example. In legal matters, to make a properly witnessed and sealed copy
of (a document). See also ILLUSTRATE
EXFOLIATE To shed in
flakes, scales, or splinters. To throw off or peel off in thin fragments, as
bark from a tree. To shed the surface of skin, bone, skin, etc. in scales.
EXHILARATE To make cheerful or merry. To fill with
feelings of well-being or delight. To enliven or invigorate. See also ENERVATE ENLIVEN
EXONERATE To free from
blame or a charge. To exculpate. To release from an obligation or duty. See
EXORCISE To seek to drive out or ward off, from a
person or place, an evil spirit by means of abjuration or religious or solemn
ceremony. To free from possession by evil spirits or malignant influences. See
EXPATIATE To speak or write at great length. To be
profuse in description or discussion. To wander without restraint
intellectually or imaginatively. See also PERORATE
EXPATRIATE To banish a person from his or her native
country. To move one's residence from one's native country. To withdraw one's
allegiance to one's country. See also EMIGRATE
EXPEDITE To hasten,
speed up the progress of; rid of difficulties, or accomplish promptly. To send,
issue, or dispatch, as an official letter or document, etc.
EXPERIENCE To have experience of. To undergo, meet with,
or feel. To learn by experience.
EXPIATE To atone,
make amends, or make reparation for, and so eliminate guilt for sin or
EXPLICATE To explain in
all details, make plain or clear the full meaning of. To develop a principle or
theory. See also ELUCIDATE THEORIZE
EXPOSTULATE To remonstrate. To reason earnestly with
someone against something he or she has done or plans to do. See also REMONSTRATE
EXPROPRIATE To dispossess someone of ownership. To
divest an owner of his title to a property, with or without compensation,
particularly for public use under the right of eminent domain. See also APPROPRIATE DISPOSSESS
EXPURGATE To purge or
cleanse (a book, play, film, speech, etc.) by removing matter, which is
offensive, objectionable, or unsuitable to readers or an audience. To delete or
cut out (some of the) text from a book or other printed material.
EXTENUATE To make a
crime, fault, mistake, offense, etc, seem to be less serious by suggesting a
mitigating circumstance. To underestimate or underrate a fault or offense, etc.
EXTERNALIZE To attribute
to external causes. To attribute external reality to. To embody in an external
form. To direct one's personality outward.
EXTINGUISH To put out a light, flame, fire, or
something that is burning or lighted. To bring to an end, destroy, annihilate,
or make null. To silence an opponent or
outshine another person or thing. To obscure or eclipse. See also ENKINDLE
EXTIRPATE To root out,
do away with, exterminate, destroy entirely, get rid of. To pull up, as by the
EXTRADITE To turn over
(a suspect, fugitive, or prisoner) for extradition to another nation or
authority. To obtain the extradition of a person to a nation or authority.
EXTRAPOLATE To infer
that, which is unknown, from that, which is known. To estimate the value of a
variable, which is outside of the range
of observed values, by assuming that what applies to known values will apply to
similar unknown values.
EXTRICATE To disengage or disentangle (someone or
something) from difficulty, danger, or entanglement. In chemistry, to liberate
a gas from combination with other elements, as in a chemical process. See also DISENGAGE DISENTANGLE
FABRICATE To construct, particularly by assembling
standard parts or sections. To devise or invent. To make
up nonexistent facts. To fake or forge a signature, document, etc. See also FALSIFY
FACILITATE To make easy or less difficult. To assist
the progress or execution of an action, task, or program. See also COMPLICATE SIMPLIFY
FALSIFY To alter fraudulently. To alter with intent
or fraud. To make false statements so as to deceive. To misrepresent. See also FABRICATE MANIPULATE
FAMILIARIZE To cause
oneself (or someone else) to become conversant with someone or something. To
cause someone or something to become well known. To bring into common knowledge
FASCINATE To attract
and hold spellbound by personal charm or some other quality. To allure,
capture, and hold the interest, attention, or curiosity of. To bewitch or hold (someone)
as if by a spell.
bring together in a federation. To unite (states) in a federation. To organize on a federal
FELICITATE To compliment on a happy event. To
congratulate. See also CELEBRATE
FEMINIZE To make or
become feminine or cause (a male) to become female.
FERTILIZE To make fertile
or productive. To make soil productive by the addition of nitrogen compounds,
phosphorous, and potassium. To make a female germ cell capable of development
by uniting with a male germ cell. To
impregnate a plant or animal.
FILLIBUSTER To obstruct
legislative action (by a minority party) by means of delaying tactics, such
as making long time-consuming speeches
in order to prevent the passage of a measure that the majority favors. To act
as a filibusterer.
FINALIZE To conclude
negotiations, complete an agreement, complete all technical or administrative
details of, or produce in final form.
FLAGELLATE To whip, scourge, flog, or lash. See also DISCIPLINE
FLUCTUATE To change
constantly from one position to another, especially between opposites. To move
back and forth. To vacillate, vary irregularly, waver. To be unstable or
undecided. See also AGITATE OSCILATE
FORMALIZE To make formal or act with formality or
ceremony. To put on in legal or official form or basis, particularly to obtain
official or authorized approval. To give a definite shape or form to
(something). See also EXECUTE
FORMULATE To express a problem in precise or
systematic terms. To state definitely or systematically, as in terms of a
formula or system. To reduce to a formula. To devise a formula, system, or
method. See also SYSTEMIZE
GALVANIZE To stimulate by, or as by, an electrical
current. To startle into sudden action. In medicine, to stimulate nerves or
muscles with induced alternating current
In addition, to coat metal by electrolysis, particularly to coat iron or
steel with zinc. See also STIMULATE
GENERALIZE To draw a
general rule or form, or infer, a general principle, opinion, or conclusion
from facts, statistics, or particular examples. To generalize based on
particular instances. To use generalities. To bring into general or popular
GENERATE To produce, reproduce, procreate, or cause
to be. To bring into existence or cause to bring into existence. To distribute
profusely. See also ENGENDER
GENTRIFY To redevelop
a deteriorated urban neighborhood through the purchase and renovation of its
houses, especially by middle-income professionals, thereby raising property
values and making the district attractive to a higher income clientele, but
usually displacing low-income families.
GERMINATE To come into
existence, begin to grow, develop, sprout, or put forth shoots. To cause to
come into existence or to grow, develop, or sprout. To develop into an
individual, or plant, as a seed, bulb, spore, etc. To produce ideas.
GERRYMANDER To manipulate
the boundaries of electoral districts of a State or county in order to
concentrate the opposition party's voting strength in as few districts as
possible and provide a majority to the other political party in as many
districts as possible.
GESTICULATE To express oneself by the use of gestures,
instead of speech, particularly in
an excited manner. To wave the arms
about while speaking. See also VERBALIZE
GLACIATE To affect by
glacial action. To cover (land) with ice or glaciers. To become ice.
GLAMORIZE To make glamorous. To cause (something) to
appear to be more attractive than it is. To add glamour. To romanticize or
glorify. See also BEAUTIFY
GLORIFY To magnify
with praise or ascribe glory to. To extol. To invest with glory or promote the
glory of. To regard as more impressive or magnificent than would normally be
GRADUATE to receive a
degree or diploma upon completion of a course of study at a university,
college, or school, or to confer a degree or diploma upon one who has done so.
To become a graduate. To pass by gradations. To change gradually. To attach a
scale of numbers to (a measuring instrument), or to mark it at specific values.
To divide (a measuring instrument) into, or mark with, degrees or other
divisions. To graduate according to a particular scale.
GRATIFY To indulge, satisfy, or give pleasure to by
catering to desires or feelings. To indulge one's desires or appetites. See
GRAVITATE To move, or
tend to move, under the influence of gravity. To be attracted compulsively
towards a center of influence.
HARMONIZE To sing or play in harmony. To accompany in
appropriate harmony. To blend or cause to blend tastefully. To be in accord or
agreement or cause to be brought into accord or agreement.
HEMORRHAGE To bleed
profusely. To experience copious bleeding from the body vessels, whether this
occurs internally in body cavities or externally.
HESITATE To pause
before acting, whether because of indecision, reluctance, or doubts about the
wisdom or ethics of the action. To pause repeatedly when speaking, falter in
speech, or stammer.
HIBERNATE To pass the
winter in a dormant or torpid state, with the rate of body functions greatly
slowed and body temperature reduced. Also, to withdraw into seclusion. To
winter in a location that has a mild climate.
HUMIDIFY To make
humid. To increase the amount of water in the air of a room or building.
HUMILIATE To cause a painful loss (to someone) of
dignity or self-esteem. To mortify. See also MORTIFY
HYPHENATE To join or
divide by a hyphen. To write with the use of hyphens.
IDEALIZE To make ideal or represent in an ideal form.
To exalt or attribute perfection to. To visualize an ideal. See also VISUALIZE
IDENTIFY To recognize, establish, or verify the
identity of someone or something. To regard or associate oneself. someone else,
or something, with other persons or things. To associate with another or others
in feelings interest, or action, etc. To regard oneself or
represent oneself as being part of, united to, or one with another person, a
cause, or a thing. See also ASSOCIATE RECOGNIZE
ILLUMINATE To provide light to a space or area. To
light, light up, supply with light. To display lights, as during a celebration.
To decorate with bright or colored lamps. To enlighten, make clear or lucid, or
throw light on a subject. To decorate a letter, page, or manuscript with gold
or colored borders, initials, pictures, etc.
ILLUSTRATE To make clear or intelligible, as by
example. To clarify by picture, design, or example. To supplement a book, periodical,
or verbal account with pictures or pictorial representations for explanation or
adornment. Exemplify. See also EXEMPLIFY
IMAGINE To use one's imagination. To create a mental
image. To conceive of something not actually present to the senses. To
conjecture, guess, believe, suppose, assume, or believe. See also VISUALIZE
IMITATE To copy, mimic, replicate, assume the
characteristics of, follow in manner and/or action, use as a model to govern
ones own actions. See also REPLICATE SIMULATE
IMMIGRATE To enter a country, in which one is not a
native, in order to establish a permanent residence. To come to a new place of
residence or habitat. See also ASSIMILATE E0IGRATE NATURALIZE
IMMOBILIZE To make
immobile. To render incapable of movement or action. To make motionless.
IMPLEMENT To perform, carry out, execute, or put into
effect, often following a plan or procedure. To fill out, supplement, complete,
fulfill. Also, to provide with implements. See also EXECUTE
IMPORTUNE To solicit , demand, or beg persistently or
urgently. To annoy or vex by demanding too frequently or vehemently. To beset
or harass with solicitations. To make improper advances toward another. See
IMPROVISE To create,
prepare, provide, or select a substitute for something, which is not available, often hastily under time
pressures. To compose, perform (music, verse, etc.), or speak extemporaneously.
INCARCERATE To imprison, confine, or enclose. To
constrict closely. See also APPREHEND
INCORPORATE To include. To unite or combine into one
body. To add, put or introduce into a body or mass as an integral part(s). To
form or constitute a legal corporation. See also ASSIMILATE INTEGRATE
compensate for damages, loss, or injury sustained or expenses incurred. To
protect against future damage or liability. See also COMPENSATE
INDIVIDUALIZE To create or
adopt an individual characteristic. To make distinctive or individual in
character. To particularize. To indicate, mention, or consider individuality.
INFILTRATE To penetrate
an organization or enemy territory in small numbers and at various points. To
work unobtrusively and in small numbers within a territory or organization in
an attempt to create a threat to its integrity or existence. To gradually
occupy unobserved. To permeate or pass into or through a substance. See also PERMEATE
INITIATE To begin or
cause to begin. To originate or put into motion.
To teach the fundamentals of
a subject. To introduce ceremonially into a society or to secret knowledge,
etc. See also ACTIVATE
INNERVATE To furnish a part of a body with nerves. To
grow nerves. To stimulate through nerves. To communicate nervous energy to. See
transmit a disease into an organism (person, plant, or animal) by introducing
the agent, which causes it, by a puncture of the skin in order to produce a
mild form of the disease and subsequent immunity against it. To impregnate an
organism with a virus or germs of a disease in this fashion. See also VACCINATE
INTEGRATE To unite or combine. To bring together,
combine, or incorporate into a whole. To absorb into an existing whole. To make
up or produce a larger or whole unit. In mathematics to find the integral value
of what is represented by various equations. See also DISINTEGRATE DISUNITE INCORPORATE
INTENSIFY To make
intense or more intense (e.g., emotion,
quality). To strengthen or make more acute. In photography, to increase the
contrast and density of a negative. See also MODERATE
INTERCEDE To intervene on behalf of another, as by
pleading or petitioning for one in difficulty or trouble. To mediate between
two people or groups in an effort to reconcile differences and effect
reconciliation. See also RECONCILE
INTERCEPT To halt,
stop, or seize someone (or something) that is traveling from one place to
another before he, she, or it can reach the intended destination. Also, to
check or halt the natural course of water, light, sound, etc. To stop or check
passage. In mathematics, to mark off (space) between two points.
INTERCHANGE To exchange, give and receive reciprocally.
To substitute one thing or group of things for other. To change places. To
cause something to change place with another. See also RECIPROCATE
INTERJECT To make a sudden remark or ask a question
abruptly during a conversation, etc. To interpose, interpolate. See also INTERPOLATE INTERRUPT
INTERLACE To bind
together by crossing over and under as if weaving. To
unite threads, strips,
branches, etc. by passing alternately over and under. To mingle. Also, to vary by mixing in other
things. In computers, to arrange the data of a sequence in storage amidst the
data of other sequences in storage, although retaining the separate identity of
INTERLEAVE To insert
blank leaves (pages) between the regular printed leaves of a book to provide
space for notes or comments.
INTERMINGLE To mix something with another, or several
other things, or become mixed together. To mingle together. See also INTERSPERSE.
INTERPOLATE To insert new
words, passages, etc. into a text. To alter or corrupt a text by introducing
additional or extraneous material to it, so as to give false impressions about
date, etc. or without authorization. To insert intermediate values or terms
into a given To interject remarks into a conversation between others. To
introduce additional or extraneous material between other things or parts. See
INTERPOSE To place
between, introduce something so that it intervenes, or cause something to
intervene. To put an obstacle, vote, veto, authority, barrier, etc., in the way
of (someone or something), or between (someone or something and its goal). To
interject a remark or question into a conversation or discourse, etc. To
interrupt. To bring influence or action, etc to bear between parties, or on
behalf of someone.
INTERPRET To explain or
set forth the meaning of (a work of art, song, dream, role in a play, etc.). To
express one's conception of a dramatic work by performing it. To perform a role or render
a song, etc. according to one's understanding or sensitivity. Also, to act as a
language translator. See also DEIPHER DRAMATIZE
INTERROGATE To ask questions of someone, as in an
inquiry. To formally examine by questioning. To question someone for
information which he or she holds secret or considers to be personal. See also ELICIT
INTERRUPT To make a break in the continuity or
uniformity of a condition, state, process, view, action, etc., or to cause such
a break. To interfere in an action or activity underway. To cause someone, who
is speaking, to cease abruptly, by beginning to speak while the former is still
speaking. To similarly end a conversation by abruptly beginning to speak in the
middle of a subject. See also INTERJECT
INTERSECT To cut or
divide by passing through or across, as lines or wires. To cross or cut each
INTERSPERSE To scatter at intervals among other things.
To place here and there among other things. See also INTERMINGLE
INTIMATE To hint,
give someone to understand (something). To make known indirectly, imply.
INTOXICATE To cause diminished control over mental and
physical faculties temporarily mental powers by imbibing alcoholic, or an
alcoholic beverage, or taking a drug or other substance into one's body. To
make drunk. Stupefy with liquor. See also STUPEFY
INTROSPECT To consider
or examine one's own thoughts and feelings. To practice introspection. See also
INVALIDATE To render
invalid, deprive of legal force or efficacy. See also VALIDATE VITIATE
IRRADIATE To illuminate, radiate light, shine on,
throw light on, make clear, brighten. To heat by radiant energy. treat by exposure
to infrared, ultraviolet, X-rays or other rays. To
illuminate intellectually or spiritually. See also RADIATE
ISOLATE To set apart. To detach or separate. To free
a substance from one of its combinations. To separate a patient, who has a
contagious disease, from others in order to prevent the spread of the disease.
To similarly insulate a bacterium in order to grow a culture in a pure state.
See also QUARANTINE
JETTISON To cast overboard as jetsam. To throw away
goods (or any part of a load) which have become an encumbrance,. To cast off
goods to lighten an aircraft or vessel, or to improve its stability in time of
emergency. See also ENCUMBER
JOURNALIZE To record in
a journal. In double-entry bookkeeping, to make entries in a journal, prior to
posting to the ledger.
JUSTIFY To defend or
uphold (an act, claim, statement, etc.) as blameless, right, just, or warranted.
To prove (or attempt to prove) that someone or something is right or free of
sin. Also, in word processing and printing, to adjust the spaces between words
in order to cause lines to be equal in length. See also VINDICATE
LEGISLATE To create
laws. To effect, or cause to become, by enacting laws. To exercise the function
LEGITIMIZE To make legitimate. See also VALIDATE
LEVITATE To rise or
float in the air as if weightless, particularly as the result of a supernatural
power. To cause to rise or float in the air.
LIBERATE To set free or release, as from bondage. To
release or disengage.
To change the status of
ownership of a property or nation. In chemistry, to free an element or gas from
a compound. See also DOMINATE EMANCIPATE
LIQUEFY To make liquid or to become liquid. See also
LIQUIDATE To convert
to cash. To pay or discharge (a debt). To terminate a company or business) by
converting its assets to cash, repaying its debts and distributing any
remaining funds to its shareholders. To abolish, break up, do away with, or put
an end to. To eradicate or exterminate opponents or enemies.
LUXURIATE To revel,
indulge in luxury, enjoy consciously or
without stint. To thrive. To grow abundantly or develop in profusion. To grow
rank. To take keen pleasure.
MANEUVER To change the position of troops, vessels,
etc. To move, guide, manipulate, or manage with skill. To engage in a maneuver
or cause forces to perform maneuvers. To steer a vessel on several different
headings successively. See also BIVOUAC EMBATTLE
MANIFEST To make
obvious or evident. To show plainly or make manifest. To be readily perceived by
eye or understanding. To prove beyond question. To list in a ship's manifest.
MANIPULATE To handle, manage, or use, particularly with
skill. To alter or change figures or accounts to one's advantage To act as one
wishes because of clever maneuvering. To make dishonest changes, as in election
results, to suit one's purpose. To influence a market by crafty trading. See
MATERIALIZE To invest with material form or attributes.
To realize or carry out. To become tangible or physically perceptible. To
become a fact. To cause (a spirit) to appear in bodily form. See also VISUALIZE
MEANDER To follow a winding or indirect course. To
wander aimlessly. To amble.
MEDIATE To settle a dispute between disagreeing
parties. To cause parties in conflict to reach a settlement by reconciling
their positions. To intervene in order to effect a reconciliation. See also COMPROMISE CONCILIATE RECONCILE
MEDICATE To treat
with medicine or medicaments. To impregnate or saturate with a medicine or medical
MEDITATE To engage in contemplation, especially by
plan. To reflect deeply upon. To spend time thinking about a religious theme as
a spiritual exercise. See also CONTEMPLATE NEGOTIATE
MILITATE To have
effect, influence, or weight. To operate against or in favor of. >To serve as a soldier or
take part in warfare.
MINIMIZE To reduce
to, or represent at, the smallest possible degree or amount. To estimate at the
least possible amount. To underestimate. To belittle.
MINISTER To furnish
or supply. To give aid, care, or service. To attend, as to wants, necessities.
To contribute, as to comfort, happiness. To administer or apply. To serve as a
minister of religion.
MISBEHAVE To conduct
oneself badly or improperly. To conduct oneself with little regard for manners
or the accepted standard of conduct.
MISCARRY To fail to
attain the desired result or to reach the desired destination. To become lost
in transit or go astray. To experience the miscarriage of a fetus.
MISINFORM To give false, inaccurate, or misleading
information to. See also PREVARICATE
MISREPRESENT To represent falsely or incorrectly, whether
deliberately or unintentionally. To represent improperly. See also REPRESENT
MITIGATE To make milder, gentler, less severe. To
lessen (harshness, severity, pain, grief, heat, cold, etc.) in intensity or
force. To alleviate, mollify, appease. See also ALLEVIATE PALLIATE
MODERATE To make less extreme, intense, violent,
severe, or rigorous. To act as a moderator. To preside over a meeting, public
forum, discussion, etc. See also ALLEVIATE EXACERBATE INTENSIFY
MODULATE To change or soften the volume. To adjust or
adapt one's tone or pitch according to circumstances. In music, to attune to a
certain pitch or key. In radio, to cause the amplitude, frequency, phase, or
intensity of a carrier wave to vary with a sound wave or other signal. See also
MOLLIFY To lessen the anger of. To soften in feeling
or temper. To reduce the effect of. To appease or pacify. To mitigate or
reduce. See also EXACERBATE
MORTIFY To humiliate by a blow to someone's pride or
self-respect. To hurt or wound the feelings of. To subdue the passions, bodily
desires, etc, through self- discipline. To become gangrenous. See also HUMILIATE
NATURALIZE To grant citizenship (to an immigrant). To
confer the rights and privileges of citizenship upon an alien. To introduce
(plants or animals) into a new region or habitat where they flourish, as if
native to the area. To adopt words, customs, practices, etc. from another
language, culture, etc. into general use. To regard and explain phenomena as
natural rather than supernatural. See also ACCLIMATIZE IMMIGRATE
NAVIGATE To direct the
path of (an aircraft or ship). To travel by vessel or aircraft across, over,
up, or down, a river, sea, etc. To sail. To find one's way carefully and
NECESSITATE To make necessary or unavoidable. To force,
compel, or oblige. See also OBLIGATE
NEGOTIATE To discuss (something) in order to reach an agreement. To arrange
for, or bring agreement about, by discussion, as in concluding a business deal
or creating a treaty. To bargain with another. Also, to transfer or cash a
check or securities, etc.. To successfully undertake a crossing, climb, etc.
See also COMPROMISE MEDIATE
NEUTRALIZE To make (something) ineffective. To
counteract or counterbalance. To make incapable of action. To make neutral. In
chemistry, to remove a substance's acidity by causing it to react with a base.
In physics, to make electrically inert by adding an equal positive or negative
charge. See also COUNTERACT
NOMINATE To appoint to
office or name as a candidate. To propose (someone) for appointment or election
to office. See also POSTULATE
NOTIFY To make (a
fact) known to someone. To inform someone (of a fact). To give notice of
something or give information of.
NULLIFY To make null,
particularly a contract. To declare or render legally void. To make futile or
inoperative. To deprive (something) of value. effectiveness, or consequence.
See also ABROGATE
NUMERATE To enumerate, count, or reckon. To read in
words a numerical expression. See also ENUMERATE
OBFUSCATE To confuse, bewilder, or stupefy. To make
difficult to understand. To obscure or darken. See also DISSEMBLE EQUIVOCATE PREVARICATE
OBLIGATE To place someone under a moral or legal
obligation. To oblige morally or legally, To make someone to be indebted by
providing a service to him. To pledge or commit funds with which to discharge
an obligation. See also NECESSITATE
OCCUPY To have (or
take) possession and control of (a building, apartment, land, or space) by
residing or settling in or on it. To fill (time or space). To take or keep
possession of by military force. To hold a position or office or remain
employed. To engage one's mind or attention, etc.
ORIENT To fix the
position of (someone or something) in relation to the points of the compass. To
adjust (someone or something) to its surroundings, circumstances, or a fact. To
turn (someone or something) to face a particular object. See also DISORIENT
OSCILLATE To swing to and fro about an axle, as does a
pendulum. To vibrate, vacillate, or fluctuate. To alternate between differing
beliefs or opinions, etc. See also FLUCTUATE VACCILATE
OSSIFY To change into bone or to cause to change
into bone. (In reference to ideas, attitudes, opinions, or behavior, etc.) to
become, or cause to become, hardened, rigid, or inflexible. See also CALCIFY VITRIFY
OVERACT To act (a role) in an exaggerated fashion. To
perform or act in an exaggerated manner. See also DRAMATIZE
OVERBUILD To cover with a building or structure. To
construct more buildings in an area than market capacity. To construct a
building that is too large or elaborate scale.
OVERHEAR To hear
(conversation, etc.) without the speaker's intention or knowledge, accidentally
or by eavesdropping.
OVERINDULGE To indulge to excess, especially in food and
drink. To treat with inordinate indulgence. See also DISSIPATE
OVERRATE To value or rate (property) too highly. To
assign to great a value to. To overestimate. See also OVERVALUE
OVERREACH To reach or
extend beyond or over. To aim at, but go beyond, a particular thing or result.
To defeat oneself by being too ambitious or clever, grasping, etc. In equestrian matters, overreach occurs when
a horse strikes its forefoot with its hind hoof.
OVERRULE To disallow. To rule or decide against
something. To give a legal decision or ruling about something that runs counter
to the decision or ruling of a lower court
or authority. See also ADJUDICATE
OVERSTAY To stay
beyond (a specified time or duration). To remain in the market or continue a
transaction, beyond the point of maximum profitability.
OVERSTEP To step or
go beyond (what is prudent or acceptable).
OVERTURN To turn
over, upset, defeat, vanquish, or destroy the power of. To turn over on its
side. To overthrow (e.g. a government).
OVERVALUE To value too highly. To place too high a
value on. See also UNDERVALUE
OVERWHELM To overpower
or submerge suddenly by superior force. To leave too moved emotionally for
speech or expression. See also BEDAZZLE DEVASTATE
PAGINATE To divide
printed text into pages. To number the pages of printed text or indicate the
sequence of them numbers or other characters on each page.
PALLIATE To mitigate, alleviate, or relieve, but
without curing. To cause something to appear to be not as bad as it is. To
disguise the gravity of (an offense) by excuses or apologies, etc. See also ALLEVIATE MITIGATE
PARALLEL To have the
same direction, course, nature or tendency as (another). To be parallel to. To
extend in the same plane as something else, but never meet it, regardless of
the distance it extends. To discover or quote a fact or event, etc., that is
similar to another.
PARALYZE To affect
with paralysis or cause a condition of helpless inactivity.
PARTICIPATE To possess
or take a share in an enterprise, activity, etc. To partake or share.
PATRONIZE To provide material support, or
encouragement, to a retail establishment by being a regular customer of it. To
behave in an offensively condescending manner toward another person(s). Act as
a patron by support and/or encouragement towards an artist or institution, etc.
See also CONDESCEND
PENETRATE To pierce or pass into, or through. To force
into or through. To permeate or diffuse through. To discern or see into or
through. To discern the meaning of something that is obscure. To affect the
mind or feelings. To obtain (a market share). See also PERMEATE
PERFORATE To pierce or
penetrate. To make a hole, or a row of holes, through (paper, etc.) by boring, punching, piercing, etc., so that the
object can be easily separated into parts. To make a perforation.
PERMEATE To penetrate
wholly, pervade, pass through, soak through, diffuse or spread through
(something). See also INFILTRATE PENETRATE
PERORATE To make or deliver a peroration, a lengthy
tedious speech, often delivered pompously. To end a speech by use of a formal
conclusion. See also EXPATIATE MEANDER
PERPETRATE To commit, perform, execute, or do a wrong
or crime, etc. To carry out or commit a
deception or prank. To do or present in an offensive or tasteless fashion. See
PERPETUATE To make
perpetual. To cause (something) to continue. To preserve from extinction, save
PETITION To request or solicit formally, as by a
petition. To make a request by formally drawn document for something (or
something to be done). To make a petition. The petition is often addressed to a
person or persons in authority and
bears the names of the petitioners, in addition to the right, favor, or
other benefit sought. See also SOLICIT
POLARIZE To cause
polarization in, or give polarity to. To serve as a point about which
concentration takes place. To concentrate, or cause to be concentrated, around
two extremes or opposites.
POSTULATE To demand or require as a condition. To
assume without proof, or as self-evident., particularly as the basis for
reasoning. To nominate someone for acceptance by an ecclesiastical superior.
See also NOMINATE
PRECIPITATE To bring about prematurely, suddenly, or
hastily. To hasten the occurrence of. In chemistry, to cause a soluble
substance to become insoluble and separate from a solution, especially a solid
that can be separated by filtration. In meteorology, to cause water vapor to
condense and fall as rain or snow. See also COAGULATE
PREDISPOSE To render a
subject susceptible to. To give, beforehand, an inclination or tendency to. To
cause, in advance, someone to feel, or tend to act, in a specific way.
PREDOMINATE To preponderate, dominate, or prevail over.
To surpass others in quality, status, influence or authority. To seem more
imposing or noticeable than something else. See also DOMINATE
PRESUPPOSE To suppose or
assume in advance. To take for granted beforehand.
PREVARICATE To speak or act evasively to conceal the
truth. To quibble, equivocate. To deliberately misstate or create an incorrect
impression. To walk crookedly, as if
straddling. See also DISSEMBLE EQUIVOCATE MISINFORM OBFUSCATE
PROGNOSTICATE To forecast,
foretell, predict, or prophesy. To predict or forecast something based on
present indications. To foretoken.
PROPAGATE To spread, disseminate, or make widely known
by media, report, practice, or person-to-person communication, etc. To transmit
heat, light, or sound. To cause to increase in number or amount. To reproduce,
or cause to reproduce, by means of natural reproduction, as do plants or
animals. To transmit hereditary features from one generation to another. See also
PULVERIZE To become,
or reduce to, a powder or dust, as by pounding or grinding. To crush, demolish,
or defeat completely.
PUNCTUATE To mark, or
divide, written material into sentences, clauses, etc. by punctuation marks in
order to make the meaning clear or provide emphasis. To use punctuation marks
to indicate a question, exclamation, direct quotation, etc. Also, to interrupt
at intervals by sound or gesture or intersperse with sound or gesture.
PURIFY To make pure
by removing impurities. To free from foreign elements or anything that debases,
adulterates, contaminates, or pollutes. To clear or purge. To free from guilt or sin or
corrupting elements. To make clean for ritual or ceremonial use. See also ADULTERATE
QUALIFY To provide
with necessary skills, knowledge, or credentials. To render fit or competent.
To render legally capable or entitled. To describe by attributing a quality to.
To modify or restrict in some manner. To make less severe, mitigate. To become
QUANTIFY To determine
or indicate the quantity of (something). To specify quantity for something that
was previously perceived to have only quality. To define the use of (a term) by
the addition of "all," "many," "some," etc.
QUARANTINE To put (someone) in quarantine. To isolate
or exclude for social, political, or hygienic reasons. See also ISOLATE
QUIETEN To make or
RADIATE To emit rays, such as light and heat, in all
directions from a central point. To lose energy through the emission of waves.
To move in all directions from a central point like rays from a center. To
irradiate. See also IRRADIATE
REACTIVATE To be active again, or cause to be active
again. See also ACTIVATE
REASSURE To assure
again. To restore to assurance or confidence. To reinsure.
RECAPTURE To capture
again. To retake or recover by capture (e.g., a government or previously
claimed depreciation expense upon property resale). Also, to provide the
allusion of flavor of (something past) by imitation.
RECIPROCATE To give in return for a benefit received. To
mutually give and receive. To give and receive reciprocally. Also, to move
alternatively backwards and forwards, with the moving part doing the work. See
RECOGNIZE To identify something that was seen or known
before. To identify because of familiarity with appearance or characteristics.
To admit familiarity with (someone) by gesture, etc. To perceive as true or
existing. To acknowledge as the one entitled to speak at a particular time,
such as a member in a public meeting or a representative in a legislature. Finally,
to formally acknowledge the status of a government (e.g. a newly independent
state or a newly elected government).as entitled to treatment as a political
unit. See also ACCREDIT ACKNOWLEDGE DISTINGUISH
RECOLLECT To recall to
one's mind, to remember. To collect or gather together again one's thoughts
about (someone or something). To have a recollection. Also, to regain one's
composure. To regain control of oneself. To absorb oneself in spiritual
meditation, particularly during prayer
RECOMMEND To commend.
To write or speak in favor of, or mention favorably. To present as worthy of
confidence, acceptance, use, etc. To nominate, suggest, or promote someone to
another as worthy or deserving of employment or patronage, etc. To suggest or urge a particular course of action
or choice, etc., as beneficial or appropriate.
To repay or
remunerate someone, or provide compensation for an article, or as restitution
for injury, damage, etc. To provide a gift in recognition of a service
rendered. See also COMPENSATE
RECONCILE To bring into agreement, harmony, love, or
friendship. To effect a compromise agreement about (differences) and/or settle
a dispute or quarrel, etc. To cause an
acquiescence or acceptance, to cause to become amicable. To make compatible or
consistent. See also COMPROMISE CONCILIATE MEDIATE
RECONFIGURE To rearrange. See also DISORDER
RECONNOITER To make a
reconnaissance. To survey or examine an area or region for geological,
engineering, or other purposes. To observe, inspect, or survey (the enemy) in
order to assess his strength or position, etc. in order to gain maximum
information for military purposes.
RECONSIDER To consider
(a matter) again, particularly with the intention of changing one's previous
decision or action. See also CONSIDER
RECONSTITUTE To reconstruct. To recompose or constitute
again, as by restoring foods, which have been concentrated or dried, by adding
water. See also CONSTITUTE DESSICATE
RECONSTRUCT To rebuild,
construct, or make over. To re-create mentally from available information or
known actions, conditions, etc., in the hope to obtain a better understanding.
To determine the (probable) earlier forms of words, language, etc., by
comparison to data from a subsequent language or related languages.
RECONVERT To convert
back to a former state. (e.g., to return to a peacetime state, use, or basis
following the end of a war).
RECOVER To regain possession of (something), such as
composure, control, balance, strength, health, prosperity, etc. To make up for
a loss, damage to oneself, etc. In legal matters, to obtain as a result of a
favorable judgment in a court of law, or by legal proceedings. See also CONVALESCE
RECREATE To refresh
mentally and physically by relaxation and recreation outside of work. To add
fresh life to, mentally or physically. To create again.
RECTIFY To make or put right. To remedy, correct. To
replace by something that is more just. In chemistry, to purify, particularly a
spirit or liquor by means of repeated distillation. In matters of electricity,
to convert an alternating current to a direct current. In geometry, to measure
the length of a curve. In ballistics, to correctly set a trajectory or orbit,
etc. by means of computation and mechanical adjustment. In seafaring, to put an
instrument or course right by adjustment and/or calculation. See also CALIBRATE
RECUPERATE To regain one's health or strength following
a sickness or exhaustion. To recover from financial loss. To restore or be
restored. See also CONVALESCE
RECYCLE To pass
through again, or undergo treatment again, as for re-use, change, etc. To
reprocess so that basic material may be used again, as in the recycling of
aluminum cans or glass bottles. for reuse. To repeat a series of operations.
REDOUBLE In bridge,
to double the bid of an opponent, whose bid has already been doubled.
RE-EXAMINE To examine
again. In legal matters, to examine (question) a witness again following
REFRIGERATE To cool,
make or keep cool or cold. To keep (food) at a low temperature in order to
REGENERATE To revive,
give new life or vigor to, bring into existence again, recreate, reconstitute,
produce anew, or make over, particularly in an improved form or condition. To
grow (a new part) with which to replace a lost one. To restore to moral or
REGISTER To enter
one's name on a formal or official record. To enter or cause to be entered
formally in a register. To enroll as a
student, voter, etc. To express or show (a feeling or emotion). To
record a thought. To penetrate the mind. In printing, to adjust so that the
location of inks correspond exactly to that of the colors on the printing
plates or films (to cause to be in register). To send a letter or package by
post under the system whereby for a fee the post office gives a receipt to the
sender and requires a certificate of receipt from the addressee at delivery.
REGURGITATE To surge or
gush back, or cause to surge or gush back. To bring up what has been swallowed.
REITERATE To do or say
again. To repeat, often several times.
RELEGATE To demote or
dismiss to an inferior or obscure place. To transfer (a matter requiring a
decision) to someone else. To assign or refer to a particular class or kind.
REMEDY To cure,
heal, relieve, put right. To restore to a natural (proper) condition. To
correct by removing an error or fault.
REMONSTRATE To express opposition or disapproval to. To
say or plead in protest, disapproval, or objection. To present reasons in
complaint. See also EXPOSTULATE
REPLENISH To fill
anew. To make full or complete again. To obtain a new supply of what is lacking
or has been used up.
REPLICATE To repeat, make a duplicate of. To fold back
on itself. See also DUPLICATE
REPOSSESS To possess
(something) again, or put in possession of it again. To regain possession of,
particularly for failure to pay money due.
REPREHEND To reprimand. To blame, rebuke, reprove,
censure, be critical of, find fault with. See also REPRIMAND
again. To present an image of. To symbolize, designate, stand for, or serve to
express by symbol, character, word, or the like. To act on behalf of, or serve
as a delegate to (a legislative assembly, in particular). To stand in place of,
substitute for, act as proxy, or simply be a sample of. See also MISREPRESENT
REPRIMAND To rebuke or reprove severely, particularly
in a formal manner. See also REPREHEND
REPRODUCE To make a
copy, duplicate, or close imitation or representation of. To produce again. To
repeat exactly. To recreate in memory. Also, to produce one or more new
individual of the same species by sexual or asexual methods.. To cause the
growth of a new part or organ with which to replace one previously lost.
RESEMBLE To be similar
in appearance or nature to (someone or something else). To be like (someone or
RESONATE To exhibit
resonance or react as if by resonance. To act as a resonator. To make resonant.
RESURRECT To bring
back to life. To restore to memory or use. To bring back into practice. To
bring to the surface as a result of erosion. To rise from the dead.
RESUSCITATE To restore
to consciousness someone who was unconscious or seemingly dead. To revive. To
bring back what had been previously forgotten or discarded. To bring back, or
come back, to life.
REUNITE To unite again following a period of
separation. See also SEPARATE
REVALUE To set or
provide a new value, as to a. currency. To make a new estimate of value, worth,
or price. To value again.
RUSTICATE To sojourn
in, or retire to live in, the country. To make rustic (country-like) in
manners, dress, etc.)..To create a rustic effect by roughening the surface of
stone or sinking the joints in stone. To suspend from a college or university
for a period as punishment.
SANCTIFY To make holy. To purify or free from sin. To
give religious sanction to, or set apart as sacred. Consecrate. See also CONSECRATE
SATIRIZE To subject
to satire or handle in a satirical fashion. To ridicule with satire.
SATISFY To fulfill the needs, demands, desires, or
expectations, of someone. To provide what is required. To cause him or her to
be free of want, need, or desire. To pay a creditor, discharge
a debt or obligation, or adequately answer an objection. To counter a misgiving
or argument, provide the solution to a mathematical problem, dispel doubt,
fulfill a condition or requirement, make content, or convince someone of a
particular fact. See also DISSATISFY GRATIFY
SATURATE To fill
completely. To soak, impregnate, or imbue thoroughly or completely. To cause a
substance to become so impregnated that it can absorb no more. To steep or
soak, particularly by immersion. In chemistry, to dissolve as much solute in a
solvent as can be held in solution at the specified temperature and pressure.
Also in chemistry, to transform some or all of the multiple bonds in an unsaturated substance by
combining with another element (e.g., hydrogen). In physics, to magnetize a
substance until further input produces no additional magnetization. In warfare,
to destroy an area by means subjecting it to a great number of bombs. In
warfare, to destroy an area by subjecting it to a high number of bombs or
SCRUTINIZE To examine
carefully and in detail. To examine with close attention. To carry out a scrutiny.
SE CULARIZE To make
secular. To separate from religious or spiritual influence or connection. To
transfer to the State from control by, or use of, the Church. To make
SEPARATE To divide or set apart things or people by
space or an intervening barrier, etc. To disconnect, put or force apart, or
disassociate from, those, which were joined or mixed together. To create a
boundary between. To cease to live together as man and wife. See also ISOLATE REUNITE
SEQUESTER To remove, separate, place apart from
society, or withdraw into solitude or retirement. In matters of law, to
confiscate by public authority. To seize and hold property until its owner
discharges a debt, or satisfies another legal claim. See also ISOLATE
SIGNIFY To make known or communicate meaning by a
sign. To be a sign of, indicate, mean. To be significant, have meaning. To
portend. To be important or of consequence. See also DESIGNATE
SIMPLIFY To make less complex or complicated. To make
easier to understand or do. See also COMPLICATE
SIMULATE To make a pretense of (something) or falsely
assume the appearance of. To have, or assume, the characteristics or appearance
of (something). See also APPROXIMATE IMITATE
SITUATE To place,
install, or construct in a certain location or site. To fix in a particular location,
position, category, condition, or set of circumstances, particularly in
reference to the possession of money.
SOLICIT To beg or
canvass for, urge or importune, or appeal for money, help, a favor, a vote,
etc. To seek for something, or for someone to do something, by entreaty, formal
application, respectful request, or petition. To propose sexual intercourse to
someone in return for money. See also IMPORTUNE PETITION
SOLIDIFY To change from a liquid or gaseous form to a
solid form, or to cause such change. To change, or make, into a compact and
solid mass. See also LIQUEFY
SPECIALIZE To become a
specialist in a particular field. To concentrate one's studies or activities on
a specific field of endeavor, or pursue a particular line of work. To become
specialized. To adapt, or render specific, to a specific use. To modify for
special conditions or limits.
SPECULATE To engage in
conjecture or and supposition. To consider possibilities and probabilities. To
engage in high-risk commercial transactions, which involve the possibility of very high returns, as in
the buying and selling of commodities, futures, stocks, and high-risk paper.
STABILIZE To render
stable or hold firm, stable, or steadfast. To prevent from changing. To
maintain in a particular state, position, or quantity.
STERILIZE To destroy
microorganisms in, or on, something by bringing to a high temperature.
Similarly, to rid surgical instruments or dressings of living microorganisms.
To render incapable of reproduction. To cause (soil) to become barren and
unproductive by the intentional use of a herbicide or as s result of natural
exhaustion of the soil's fertility.
STIGMATIZE To mark with stigmata. To attach a mark of
infamy or disgrace upon, or to (something or endeavor). See also DISHONOR
STIMULATE To move (a
person) to greater action or effort. To act as a spur to greater application or
attentiveness, etc. To arouse the appetite or goad the functioning of (an
organ). To act as a stimulant. See also GALVANIZE
STIPULATE To promise,
specify or require (something) as an essential condition of an agreement or
arrangement. To expressly state such promise or demand in terms of the
STUPEFY To make
stupid or torpid, deprive of sensibility. Benumb the faculties of. Also, to
overwhelm with amazement, astound, astonish. See also INTOXICATE
SURRENDER To give up possession (of something) to
(someone or something), especially on demand or under duress. To submit, yield,
or give oneself into the power of someone else, such as the police. To abandon
or relinquish (comfort, hope, etc.). To submit to an influence, emotion,
course, etc. To resign an office, or yield a privilege, in favor of another. To
give up one's rights provided by an insurance policy in exchange for payment in
an agreed amount. See also APPREHEND
SYMBOLIZE To represent or stand for, as in manner of a
symbol. To represent by symbols, or a symbol. To use symbols. To treat or
regard as symbolic. See also DESIGNATE
SYMPATHIZE To feel or
express sympathy for another person. To share in a feeling or feelings with
another person. To feel or express compassion for the sorrow, suffering, or
difficulties of someone else. Also, to be in accord or agreement with another person or cause.
SYNCHRONIZE To occur at
the same time, or cause to occur at the same time. To proceed at the same rate,
or cause to proceed at the same rate. To adjust a time-piece (or other device)
with another so as to agree in time, operate at the same rate, or function
together. Similarly to adjust sound with the action of a film or adjust the opening of a camera's shutter with its
SYNTHESIZE To form
component elements into a unified whole. To create a material or abstract
entity by combining parts or elements, instead of extracting from, or breaking
apart, another compound or entity.
SYSTEMATIZE To arrange in or a system, or according to a
system. To reduce to a system or make systematic.
TABULATE To arrange
in tabular form. To present by means of tables. To present in a systematic,
TERMINATE To come or bring to an end. To close. To
form a conclusion of. To limit or bound spatially. See also ABROGATE CULMINATE
TERRIFY To fill with
terror, frighten. To make (someone) greatly fearful.
TESTIFY To bear witness to. To afford or give
evidence. To affirm a fact or truth, especially under oath. To give testimony
under oath, usually in court. See also ADJUDICATE
THEORIZE To engage in forming a theory. To work at
creating a theory or theories. See also EXPLICATE
ULCERATE To become or
make ulcerous. To cause or form an ulcer on or in.
UNDERACHIEVE To perform below one's capacity. To achieve significantly
less than possible. See also DISAPPOINT
UNDERCHARGE To charge
(someone) a price for goods or services that is too low. To charge a price that
is lower than is fair, proper, permissible, or customary. Also, to add an
insufficient charge or load.
UNDERCUT To cut away
from the undersurface of.(something) To
cut beneath or under. To cut material away in order to leave a portion
overhanging or standing out in relief, as in carving or sculpture. To sell at a
lower price, or work at a lower wage, than another person. To hit a golf or
tennis ball with an underhand motion in order to give it a backspin.
UNDERDEVELOP To develop less than what is possible,
customary, or required.. To develop less than necessary to create the desired
image (for a country or region). To develop industrially or economically less
than would be possible with the required capital, technicians, etc. See also OVERBUILD
UNDER-EMPLOY To provide
(or hold) employment that does not fully utilize one's skills.
UNDERESTIMATE To rate or estimate the value (of something
or someone) at less than its true worth. To quote too low a figure when
providing an estimate of value. To estimate value, rate, etc. below what would
be correct. See also UNDERRATE UNDERVALUE
UNDEREXPOSE To expose
(film) to insufficient light or for an sufficient period, as in photography
UNDERGO To endure, experience, sustain, suffer, or
pass through. To be subjected to. See also EXPERIENCE
UNDERLAY To lay under
or beneath. To provide, support, or line with something placed beneath. To
adjust with an underlay.
UNDERLINE To draw a line under (e.g. a word, phrase,
or sentence) particularly for emphasis. To indicate the importance of by means
of a line or lines below. To underscore. See also EMPHASIZE UNDERSCORE
UNDERPLAY In acting, to perform a role in an
intentionally restrained fashion. To not provide full, dramatic emphasis to an
acting role. To achieve an effect in acting with only a minimum of emphasis. In
cards, to play a hand for less than its full value. See also DRAMATIZE OVERACT
UNDERRATE To attribute less than full worth or
importance to. To underestimate. To rate too low. See also OVERRATE UNDERESTIMATE
UNDERSCORE To underline, as for emphasis. To mark with
a line or lines below. See also UNDERLINE
UNDERSIGN To sign
one's name below, or at the end of a letter or document.
comprehend. To perceive the idea, meaning, character, nature, or subtleties of
something. To be thoroughly familiar with (something). To form a reasoned
judgment about something. To appreciate and sympathize with.
UNDERTAKE To embark on
(a journey). To promise or agree to perform a duty or task, or to assume a
responsibility (for something) Also, to
warrant or guarantee.
UNDERVALUE To estimate worth at too low a value. To
underestimate. To assign too low a value to
(something or someone). To hold too low an opinion of, or to have insufficient
regard or esteem for, someone or something. See also OVERVALUE UNDERESTIMATE
UNDERWRITE To execute
an insurance policy. To affix one's signature to (an insurance policy) and
thereby assume liability in the event of specified loss or damage. To undertake
to meet the financial loss of. To assume liability to an amount of. To
guarantee the purchase of (stocks, bonds, etc.) issued for public subscription
by purchasing them on a specified date and at a negotiated price.
UNDULATE To move in a
sinuous or wavelike motion or form, or to cause to move with such a motion.
UNRAVEL To untangle,
disentangle, or undo. To free from difficulty or complication. To solve a
complex problem. To solve or make clear.
VACCINATE To inoculate with a vaccine (the modified
virus of a particular disease) in order to render the subject immune to the
particular disease. See also INOCULATE
VACILLATE To waver or change repeatedly from one
opinion or decision to another. To act indecisively, irresolutely, or
hesitantly. To sway unsteadily, waver, totter, or stagger. See also FLUCTUATE
VACUUM To clean with
the use of a vacuum cleaner. To operate, or treat with, any vacuum device.
VALIDATE To make valid or binding. To substantiate or
confirm the validity of. To ratify or give official
sanction, approval, or confirmation to particular documents, officials, or
election procedures. See also AUTHENTICATE INVALIDATE LEGITIMIZE
VANDALIZE To wantonly
destroy, deface, or disfigure what should be preserved. To wantonly or
ignorantly destroy or spoil natural or human works of beauty.
VAPORIZE To change to vapor, be changed to vapor, or cause to
change to vapor. Also to speak boastfully. See also VOLATIZE
grow as in the manner of a plant. To lead an inactive life without much
physical or intellectual effort.
VERBALIZE To communicate verbally. To express in words.
To use many words, be verbose. To convert into a verb. See also GESTICULATE VOCALIZE.
VERIFY To test or
confirm the truth or accuracy of (something) by examination, comparison, or research. In law, to
substantiate by proofs, as by evidence or testimony.
VINDICATE To prove the truth or virtue of (someone or
something), after this has been questioned or challenged. To free from
accusation, suspicion, or imputation. To afford justification for. To assert or
defend a right or cause, etc. against opposition. See also EXCULPATE
VIOLATE To break or transgress a promise, agreement,
rule, instructions, law, principle, etc. by strong opposition to it. To break
into or pass through (something) by means of force or without right. To treat
disrespectfully or irreverently. To interfere thoughtlessly with or disturb
rudely. To desecrate or profane. To rape. See also DESECRATE
VISUALIZE To recall or form a mental image of (someone
or something). To make visual or visible. To make perceptible to the mind. See
VITALIZE To give energy, vigor, or vitality to. To
animate. To give life to. See also ENERVATE
VITIATE To spoil, mar, debase, make faulty or
defective, impair the quality of. To corrupt or pervert. In law, to make
legally defective or invalid. See also INVALIDATE
VITRIFY To become glass or glasslike by means of
heat and fusion. To make or become vitreous. See also CALCIFY OSSIFY
VIVIFY To enliven, animate, quicken. brighten,
sharpen. See also ENLIVEN
VOCALIZE To make vocal. To form or utter sounds with
the voice, particularly to sing or exercise the voice with vowel sounds. To
change into vowel. See also ARTICULATE MATERIALIZE VERBALIZE
VOLATIZE To evaporate or cause to evaporate. To make
volatile, become volatile, or cause to pass off as a vapor. See also VAPORIZE
VOUNTEER To offer willingly one's services or a remark or explanation
for a service or undertaking, particularly for service in the armed forces. To
give, provide, or perform without being asked to do so, usually without
compensation. Also, to say or tell voluntarily. In addition, to enlist as a
volunteer. See also CONTRIBUTE
VULCANIZE To treat
(rubber) with sulfur or a sulfur compound and heat in order to render it
non-plastic and increase its durability and elasticity. To subject another
substance to a similar process in order to harden it.
© G.A. Robinson 2002-2013